Historical source documents:
Some additional source document links are at
Israel-related news item links are at
Additional recent news items are at
Undated - - This is how Israel's actions are, and should be, judged by itself.
- Kenneth Stein - This 1987 article explores the roots of the land problem in mandatory Palestine.
Source documents by year
2009 - - In this speech, Netanyahu gave Israeli support to a Palestinian state, in response to US President Obama's initiative, but would not accede to US demands for a freeze in construction of new housing in Israeli West Bank settlements.
2009 - - This speech is bound to be marked as a historic turning point in relations between the United States and the Muslim and Arab worlds.
2007: - The Arab League resolved to renew the Arab peace initiative of 2003, but most of the resolutions were not conciliatory to Israel.
- This resolution was passed after lengthy negotiations in March of 2007, to impose further sanctions on Iran for failing to halt enrichment of uranium, after its failure to comply with resolutions and .
- On March 17, 2007, the Palestinians formed a unity government. Its platform is at best ambiguous regarding the prospects for peace, and promises "resistance" until the return of Palestinian refugees and the end of the occupation, which, it states, began 60 years ago.
- This resolution was passed after lengthy negotiations in December of 2006, to impose sanctions on Iran for failing to halt enrichment of uranium.
: A US bipartisan group commissioned by the government gave recommendations for dealing with the deteriorating situation in Iraq. These included a call for Israeli-Palestinian and Israeli-Arab negotiations, which the authors felt would somehow affect the situation in Iraq.
- This resolution was passed to end the Israeli retaliatory attack on Lebanon in August of 2006 and to disarm the Hezbollah, after Hezbollah attacked Israel, killing three soldiers and kidnapping two others and triggering a month of intense hostilities.
- Iran is ordered to cease enrichment of uranium, under suspicion that it is developing nuclear weapons.
2006: Statement of the G-8 on the Lebanon-Israel Crisis - The G-8, meeting in St. Petersburg, issued this statement regarding the crisis that began when Lebanese Hezbollah terrorists abducted two Israeli soldiers, killed 3 others and began firing rocket attacks on Israel.
- This resolution urges Syria to delineate borders with Lebanon, and open an embassy. It reiterates the call for disarming of militias including the Hezbollah terrorists.
- Following completion of the Israeli disengagement plan, Ariel Sharon gave this speech to the UN General Assembly on September 15, 2005.
- Israel report that documented the fact that numerous "outposts" were created in the occupied territories without government approval and in blatant violation of the law.
- For the first time, the Security Council adopts an internationally recognized definition of terror and calls on member countries to fight terrorism.
The International Court of Justice in the Hague ruled that the security fence is illegal under international law. Several judges also submitted concurring or dissenting opinions: , , , ,
- This resolution is aimed at Syria and was an unsuccessful attempt to prevent the amendment of the Lebanese constitution to allow Syrian-sponsored Emile Lahoud to remain President for an additional three years. It calls for an end to interference in Lebanese internal affairs for withdrawal of foreign (Syrian) troops from Lebanon and the disarming of all militias.
- Exchange of letters between Israeli PM Ariel Sharon and US President George W. Bush regarding Sharon's proposal for unilateral withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and portions of the West Bank.
- This resolution, introduced by Russia, adopts the quartet roadmap for peace between Palestinians and Israel as UN policy, explicitly endorses a permanent two-state solution to the conflict and calls on the sides to implement their obligations under the roadmap.
- The fence or wall that Israel is building in the West Bank has been the subject of acrimonious debate. This General Assembly Resolution condemned the fence as illegal, after the US threatened to veto a similar resolution in the Security Council.
- Israeli opposition leaders, led by Shahar party leader Yossi Beilin and Palestinians led by Yasser Abd-Rabbo, negotiated a new draft agreement, that would supposedly replace the Oslo accords as the basis for Israeli-Palestinian peace.
The Israeli government accepted the Roadmap for Middle East Peace with 14 reservations on key points.
- Official updated version published by the Government of the United States April 30, 2003.
- Official version of the address promising to fight corruption and violence, given on the election of Mahmud Abbas (Abu Mazen) to the post of Prime Minister, paving the way for publication of the Middle East Peace Roadmap, as promised by the United States.
- Under pressure for reform, Palestinians evolved a draft constitution based upon the The democratic constitution was one of the demands of the Middle East Peace Roadmap as well as of Palestinians. Comments on the constitution by
- This act calls for removing the US Embassy in Israel to Jerusalem, and recognizing Jerusalem as part of Israel. President Bush announced that he will treat it as "advisory," meaning that he will ignore it.
- In October of 2002, US President Bush issued his own version of a detailed road map for a Palestinian - Israeli settlement, based on the Quartet statement of September 17. It is known as Elements of a Performance-Based Road Map to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict.
- Representatives from the European Union, the United Nations, and Russia formed group known as the " which began to shape international policy toward resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The Quartet issued the statement below regarding a road map for peace on September 17, 2002.
- Following Colin Powell's mission to the Middle East, a four nation "Quartet" committee was formed to develop a road map for an Israeli-Palestinian settlement
- In this controversial and historic speech, delivered following repeated Palestinian terror attacks and while Israel had reoccupied all of the West Bank in retaliation, US President Bush called for establishment of a Palestinian state following democratic reform.
Following the initiation of the Israel Defensive Wall operation, President Bush announced that he was sending Secretary of State Colin Powell to the Middle East in an attempt to negotiate a cease fire.
- Under pressure for reform, PNA Chairman Yasser Arafat signs the transitional constitution of the Palestine authority. (Approved by PLC in October 1997, signed into law on May 30, 2002). The law guarantees basic rights, but states that Palestinian legislation will be based on the principles of Islamic Sha'arieh law.
- Calls for lifting the restrictions on the work of humanitarian organizations in Jenin and for a fact finding committee to investigate the conditions following Israeli operations against terrorists. The resolution was passed following Palestinian allegations of a massacre in Jenin.
- Calls for implementation of resolution 1402. It was passed against the backdrop of continuing Israeli incursions and continuing Palestinian suicide attacks.
- This resolution was drafted by Norway following the Israeli incursions into Jenin, Ramallah, Bethlehem and other towns. The towns were occupied and the Israeli Army defeated entrenched guerilla forces of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs suicide brigades, after Palestinians stepped up attacks at the end of March. The almost daily attacks included a suicide attack that killed 27 people in a Nethanya hotel while they were celebrating the Passover holiday. Syria abstained, ostensibly because the resolution didn't condemn Israel strongly enough.
- This resolution was adopted in the face of mounting violence and failure to obtain a ceasefire. Israel had invaded Balata refugee camp following several Palestinian suicide attacks and other incidents. The Security Council called for establishment of a Palestinian state.
Saudi Crown prince Abdullah floated an Arab peace plan that was discussed and modified at am Arab League summit conference in Beirut in March of 2002. The plan calls for Israeli withdrawal from all territories occupied since 1967 and return of the Palestine refugees to Israel in return for recognition of Israel and normal relations. The King of Jordan and President of Egypt did not attend. Palestinian Chairman Yasser Arafat was prevented from attending by the Israeli government.
- On September 11, 2001, simultaneous terror attacks on the Twin Towers financial center in New York City and on the Pentagon in Washington DC killed thousands. The man behind these bombings is (or was?) Osama Bin Laden, Saudi millionaire and religious fanatic.
- Plan proposed by the US CIA director to end the violence and revive the stalled peace process.
- Report of the Mitchell Commission regarding the origins of the Al-Aqsa Intifadeh and steps that should be taken to end the violence.
- In the wake of the Intifada, the UN Commission on Human Rights resolved to investigate human rights in the occupied territories of Israel-Palestine.
- Proposal by Jordan and Egypt for ending the violence of the Al-Aqsa Intifadeh and resumption of negotiations.
- EU envoy Miguel Moratinos prepared a "non-paper" summarizing the positions of the sides at the conclusion of the Taba talks.
- The Palestine refugee problem remains perhaps the most difficult obstacle facing Israeli and Palestinian negotiators. In January 2001, the sides met at Taba in a last-minute effort to salvage a peace agreement. At the conclusion of negotiations, they issued an optimistic joint communique. Their positions regarding the refugee problem were published in the French newspaper Le Monde, and indicate fundamental differences of opinion.
- Negotiators of the Palestinian and Israeli sides, together with American officials met in the United States. After several days of negotiations, President Clinton offered these proposals to bridge differences between the sides.
2000: - According to Abbas, the Camp David negotiations failed because Israel refused to surrender all sovereignty in East Jerusalem, and refused to accept the return of descendants the Arab Palestinian refugees of 1948.
- An unofficial summary of Israel proposals for final settlement made at the Camp David Summit in July 2000.
- Israeli, Palestinian and American leaders met at Camp David in an attempt to frame a final status agreement. The meeting ended in stalemate, but the statement issued at least left a small opening for hope.
- Following resumption of implementation of the Wye River Memorandum, Final Status negotiations opened in Ramalla.
1998 - - This address by Fatah Central Committee member Sakher Habash explains that Fateh policy is to perpetuate the refugee problem and to use return of the Palestinian refugees as a "winning card" that will mean the end of Israel. According Habash, this is also the policy of the Palestinian National Authority.
- Following the conclusion of the Wye River Memorandum negotiations, US officials provided Israel with letters of assurance regarding the cancellation of PLO charter provisions about destruction of Israel, and elimination of armament and surplus police not permitted under the Oslo agreement.
- Palestinian and Israeli commitments regarding the "second redeployment" (the first one was never implemented) under the interim Oslo agreement.
- In 1998, PLO Chairman Arafat issued a letter assuring the US that provisions of the PLO charter regarding destruction of Israel were null and void, and specified which provisions were nullified.
- Agreement concluded after the Israeli Operation Grapes of Wrath, during which Israel bombarded wide areas of South Lebanon in retaliation for Hizballah bombardment of Israel.
- Israeli Prime Minister Yitshak Rabin was assassinated by right-wing fanatic Yigal Amir at a giant peace rally in 1995. The rally had been called to protest violence that had been rising on both sides, and to reaffirm the commitment of the government and the Israeli people to peace.
This act of the US congress called for moving the US embassy to Jerusalem, and for recognizing Jerusalem as the united capital of Israel. It has had no practical effect, because presidents Clinton and Bush issued periodic waivers stating that implementation of the act would interfere with US policy.
- This frequently misunderstood document made it possible to hold elections and set up a Palestinian Authority that would negotiate a final settlement with the Israelis. It did not stipulate the nature of the final settlement in any way.
- Draft agreement, never ratified, between Israeli negotiator Yossi Beilin and PLO negotiator Abu Mazen (Mahmoud Abbas). Though repudiated by both sides, many of the principles of the agreement have been reflected in subsequent negotiations.
- After the Palestinian - Israeli peace process appeared to be well under way, Jordan and Israel were able to rapidly conclude a peace treaty, aided by warm personal relations between HM King Hussein and PM Rabin.
- Breakthrough agreement of mutual recognition between the State of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization, which began the Israeli-Palestinian peace process.
- Prior to the signing of the Oslo Declaration of Principles, Yasser Arafat of the PLO and Yitzhak Rabin exchanged letters. Arafat promised to refrain from violence and to amend the PLO Charter which called for liquidation of Israel. Rabin promised to work for normalization of life for Palestinians and peace.
was a bilateral Syrian Lebanese agreement that began to implement the principles of the Taif agreement regarding Syrian occupation of Lebanon.
- This agreement was concluded between warring factions in Lebanon under the auspices of the Arab league and Syria. They were intended to settle the Lebanese civil war and legitimize the Syrian occupation.
Under pressure from the US following the Palestine National Council declaration of acceptance of UN Resolutions 242 and 338, Israel issues a peace plan for negotiations with the Palestinians, but not with the PLO.
- Under internal pressure, as well as pressure from the United States, Yasser Arafat declares that the PLO recognizes UN resolution 242.
- Under the impetus of the uprising ("Intifadeh") in the Israeli-occupied Arab territories, the Palestine Liberation Organization declared a state in exile. Some see this declaration as implying recognition of Israel, but the declaration makes no mention of Israel or of UN resolution 242.
- This Islamic fundamentalist group was formed to fight the idea of compromise over Palestine/Israel. Its charter declared that all of Palestine belongs to the Moslems, that it can only be liberated by Jihad - holy war, and that the program of Zionism was to expand and take over Arab countries one by one. This Zionist program, according to the charter, is set forth in the Protocols of the Elders of Zion (an anti - Semitic forgery).
- The Hezbollah was originally organized as a radical Shi'ite militia to fight the Israeli occupation of Lebanon in 1985. It evolved into an Iranian and Syrian supported movement for the destruction of Israel.
- This treaty was signed during the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1983, but it was never ratified.
- This report summarizes the investigation of massacres perpetrated in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps by Phalangist Christian militia allied to Israel. The report concluded that Israeli Defense Minister Ariel Sharon and others had indirect responsibility for the massacres, since they had ample reason to believe that they could occur, and nonetheless allowed the militia to enter the camps.
1980 - This resolution protested the passage of the Israeli Basic Law: Jerusalem, declaring that united Jerusalem is the capital of Israel.
1980: - Declared united Jerusalem to be the capital of Israel.
1980 - This resolution protested the Israeli intention to pass a basic law declaring that united Jerusalem is the capital of Israel.
- The peace treaty was signed almost a year after the historic Camp David agreement, and after intensive shuttle diplomacy by US President Jimmy Carter.
- Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli PM Menachem Begin, meeting at Camp David under the auspices of US President Jimmy Carter, sign framework agreements for peace in the Middle East and peace between Egypt and Israel. The Middle East framework was not implemented, but its some principles were incorporated in later negotiations with the Palestinians and Syrians.
- Adopted in March, 1978, when Israel invaded Lebanon (Operation Litani).
- In reaction to the visit of Egyptian President Anwar As Sadat to Jerusalem, offering peace, the PLO formed a block of opposition states and groups, reiterating its rejection of UN Resolutions 242 and 338, and its intention to destroy Israel.
- In November of 1977, President Anwar as Sadat of Egypt traveled to Jerusalem and delivered this plea for peace that initiated the Israeli-Egyptian peace process.
The content of this speech was to set the agenda for US policy in next three decades.
- The , adopted November 10, 1975.
1975: - Kissinger's conversation with the Iraqi foreign minister seems to be shocking, but it was in fact an expression of U.S. policy.
1974: - This article provides the background of an important statement that defined the relation between the new state of Israel and Diaspora Jews.
1974 - These resolutions recognized the right of the Palestinian people to "resist" the occupation and granted observer status to the Palestine Liberation Organization.
- Yasser Arafat, chairman of the PLO was invited to speak before the UN General Assembly. He equated Zionism with racism and anti-Semitism, asserted that terrorism was legitimate for the purpose of revolution, and vowed to liberate Palestine and replace Israel with a secular democratic state.
- In 1974, the Palestine National Council adopted a program for gradual "liberation" of Palestine, declaring that it would establish a state on any part of Palestine liberated from the Zionists. This has variously been interpreted as a historic compromise implying that Palestinians would be willing to live alongside Israel, or as a "staged plan" for the destruction of Israel.
- Resolution adopted following the October Yom Kippur War.
- Revised document adopted by the Palestine Liberation Organization in 1968, as the basis for their struggle against Israel and Zionism. In 1993, as part of the Oslo agreement, the Palestinians promised to cancel key provisions of the charter that denied the right of Israel to exist. The PLO executive met on two different occasions (the second one in the presence of President Clinton) to alter the charter.
- Following the 6-Day war, an Arab summit meeting in Khartoum rejected the possibility of peace or negotiations with Israel.
- Resolution adopted following the 6-Day War, calling for a negotiated peace and Israeli withdrawal from territories conquered in the 6 Day war.
- This speech, given in the newly liberated campus of the Hebrew University, came to symbolize the way a generation of Israelis regarded the and the moral stature of the IDF.
- The chairman of the Senate Committee on foreign relations asserted that "they" control congress and would not allow passage of anti-Israel legislation.
1967- - On June 6, 1967, President Gamal Abdul Nasser of Egypt and King Hussein of Jordan had a telephone conversation. Nasser told Hussein his forces were striking back at Israel, and they both agreed to fabricate the claim that the United States and Britain were aiding Israel. As a result, angry mobs stormed US and British embassies, Gulf states embargoed oil shipments and 6 countries broke off diplomatic relations with the United States and Great Britain. The lie is apparently still taught in Egyptian schools.
- Even though the situation had changed for the worse since Johnson had met with Abba Eban, his reply to Israeli PM Levi Eshkol's letter, sent 4 days later, offered nothing new. Johnson counseled restraint.
- This recently declassified memorandum of May 31, 1967 urges US officials to consider the option of allowing Israel to "go it alone" in order to extricate the US from its commitments to Israel, which could not be fulfilled owing to Arab pressure.
- In this letter, sent May 30, 1967, Eshkol implored Johnson to either live up to US commitments to Israel, or allow Israel to act independently to break the blockade of the straights of Tiran.
1967: - In these famous remarks on May 28, Eshkol appeared to hesitate, exacerbating a government crisis at a critical time.
- On May 26, 1967 the CIA National Board of Estimates submitted this recently declassified document, which noted that Israel faced difficult choices and would probably incur serious casualties in the event of war.
- On May 26, the CIA submitted this recently declassified estimate, which insisted that Israel would beat Arabs handily in a war, but its projections for recovery after Israel would lose half its aircraft, as it predicted, were unrealistic.
- Prior to the Six day war, Israeli Foreign Minister Eban was sent to the United States to obtain support for opening the straits of Tiran, in accordance with US commitments. He came away empty handed essentially. In this meeting on May 26, Johnson, like other US officials, insisted that there was no danger of Egyptian attack, and that it was in Israel's best interests to wait for a diplomatic solution. The US however, was pressured by its own diplomats not to pursue freedom of navigation for Israel.
- Prior to the Six day war, Israeli Foreign Minister Eban was sent to the United States to obtain support for opening the straits of Tiran, in accordance with US commitments. In this memorandum to President Johnson, preparatory to Johnson's meeting with Eban, Rusk explains that allowing Israel to act against Egypt would be detrimental to US interests, because of fear of an oil embargo.
- Prior to the Six day war, Israeli Foreign Minister Eban was sent to the United States to obtain support for opening the straits of Tiran, in accordance with US commitments. American officials stalled for time and tried to prevent Israeli action. This recently declassified document records a meeting with Secretary of Defense McNamara on May 25.
- Prior to the Six day war, Israeli Foreign Minister Eban was sent to the United States to obtain support for opening the straits of Tiran, in accordance with US commitments. American officials stalled for time. This recently declassified document records a meeting with Secretary of State Dean Rusk on May 26.
- This recently declassified CIA estimate negated Israeli claims that an Egyptian attack was imminent. However, several sources indicate that in fact an Egyptian attack had been planned for the morning of May 27 and was cancelled due to Soviet pressure and Egyptian belief that Israel had discovered the attack plans.
1967: - Prior to the Six Day war, Ambassador Smythe summarized his views of Israel, representing the views of the diplomatic corps. Israel, in his opinion was an "unviable client state." This recently declassified document epitomizes the views of many State Department diplomats.
- Declassified document reveals pressure on the US from Aramco and Arab countries to refrain from honoring its commitments to freedom of navigation.
- Made on May 26, 1967 - Nasser claimed that Egypt was only looking for the right movement and the proper excuse to fight for the Palestinian cause.
- Made on May 26, 1967, - Nasser insisted that the battle with Israel would reverse the Arab loss of 1948, or in other words, that Egypt was preparing to destroy Israel.
; - Rusk told the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations on January 16, that he believed there would not be a war, ignoring considerable evidence.
- Senator Stuart Symington asserted on January 11 that Israel had attacked Jordan at Samu because Jordan is a client of the United States.
- Following the Arab Summit of September 13, Israel sent two notes to the UN regarding the declared intention to destroy Israel which was among the resolutions of conference.
- The conference held in Alexandria on Sept. 13, 1964, declared the goal of eliminating Israel, and made concrete decisions regarding unification of army commands, increased size of armed forces and diversion of the waters of the Jordan before they reached the Sea of Galilee, in Syria and Lebanon.
1964 - - The Palestine Liberation Organization was formed in this period at the instigation of Syria and Egypt and adopted a charter calling for the destruction of Israel and "liberation" of all of "Palestine.
- The Fateh Palestinian resistance movement began to form about 1957, but was not officially organized until the 60s. It soon became the leading Palestinian group. Their constitution, which has not been changed following the peace accords, calls for the destruction of Israel and of Zionism.
: - Called on Egypt to open the Suez Canal to Israeli shipping and to desist from belligerent acts.
!950 - - also called the Ben-Gurion-Blaustein agreement, these remarks by tried to define the relations between the State of Israel and Diaspora Jews.
: - created the United Nations Relief Works Agency for assisting Palestinian Arab refugees.
- This resolution provided interim aid to Arab refugees from Palestine.
1949: - Pledges by belligerents to allow access to holy places in Palestine, provided in reply to the request for such pledges (see ).
- This document called for written undertakings by different governments regarding access to holy places in Palestine outside the "internationalized Jerusalem sector.
1949: - Document prepared for the UN Secretariat listing the major holy places and the status and resolution of conflicting claims of ownership.
1949 - .- An explanation of anti-Semitism.
1949: Armistice Agreements - Under the aegis of UN Mediator Ralph Bunche, negotiations were conducted between Israel and the four neighboring states that were at war with it. The agreements incorporated lands that had been allocated to the Palestinian state into Israel, Jordan and Syria, and left the Gaza Strip under Egyptian administration
- This resolution, adopted near the close of the Israel War of Independence (1948 War), calls for repatriation of any who are "willing to live in peace with their neighbors," and compensation for loss of property as a result of the war.
1948 - The second plan of Count Bernadotte called for a tiny Jewish state and internationalization of Jerusalem.
1948 .- This plan of the UN mediator ignored and called for annexation of the Jewish areas of Palestine as an enclave within Transjordan, with limitations of Jewish immigration.
- This resolution called on the parties in the Arab-Israeli war to conclude armistice agreements that would lead to a lasting peace.
- Immediately following the Israeli declaration of independence, the Arab League states declared war on Israel and issued a statement announcing their intentions to restore the state of affairs prevailing prior to partition - in other words, to eliminate the State of Israel.
1948: - A news report outlining the steps taken by Arab and Muslim countries against Jews just prior to the outbreak of the Israeli War of Independence. Arab countries planned not only ethnic cleansing of in , but also draconic steps against their own Jewish citizens. Eventually, most Jews in these countries had to flee, many leaving behind extensive properties. A report on the danger had been submitted to the UN, but the UN never acted to protect Jews in Muslim countries and never recognized these Jews as refugees or provided them with any relief or legal rights.
- Issued May 14 1948, as the British were departing Palestine, the declaration of independence promised equality to all citizens of Israel in a "Jewish State."
1948: - A study by the Nation magazine submitted as a report to the U.N., with documentation, showed how the British had fought to subvert the UN partition resolution on Palestine, and made a key contribution to founding the Israeli-Arab conflict.
1948: - These assessments by Jewish officials leave no doubt at all that they perceived the defense situation to be perilous and the outcome of the civil war to be very much in doubt.
- , Arabs tried to put into effect a blockade of Jerusalem that would force the surrender of the Jewish community there. As this Haganah report shows, the situation had become desperate, belying the claim that the Jews had clear military superiority over the Arabs.
- In the chaos that ensued , Palestinian Arabs began fleeing from major towns, including Haifa. Part of the flight was directed from above, by the Arab higher command, part was due to fear following the attack of Jewish dissidents on , in which over a hundred civilians were killed. In Haifa, Jewish attacks by the and Irgun as well as Arab attacks and Jewish counter-attacks, turned the city into a battle field. Some Jewish authorities intervened to try to convince Arabs to stay, but the leadership explained that Arab higher committee members had left, the community was disintegrating as they talked, and there was nothing they could do.
- Issued March 25, 1948, it was Truman's way of defusing the trusteeship plan that had been backed by the State Department and advanced at the UN without his approval. The purpose of the trusteeship plan was to prevent Israeli statehood. Truman's statement turned trusteeship into a prelude to statehood. In fact, the idea was never implemented.
- The general plan developed over several years by the Haganah for defense in case of Arab attack on the Jewish state.
1948: - total commitment to war, without abandoning ideals and spiritual values, would be what would win the war according to Ben Gurion.
1947: - Poem by Hebrew poet Natan Alterman, written in 1947 in anticipation of the coming bloody struggle.
1947: (Excerpts) - Following the partition resolution of the United Nations, the Arab League drafted a proposed law that would force all Jewish citizens of member countries to register, and that would lead to freezing and confiscation of their assets, reminiscent of draconic Nazi-era legislation,
- Following the announcement of the partition plan, violence erupted sporadically throughout Palestine. Here is one account of a major incident in Haifa.
- Plan to partition Palestine into two states after the British Mandate ended.
- The CIA estimated that the Arab states would not dare to attack Israel and defy the UN, but that Israel would lose a guerrilla war against the Palestinian Arabs and their supporters. The opposition of the Arab states was based on their claim that Palestine was part of the Arab world, and not on fears of dispossession by Jews or the issue of self-determination for Palestinian Arabs.
- The USSR favored the partition plan.
-The US supported the partition plan.
- On September 1, 1947, the UN Special Commission on Palestine submitted this report.
1947 - This remarkable testimony to the UNSCOP on July 8, 1947, contains both a capsule summary of Zionism as well as important background on the intent of the Balfour declaration.
- The USSR supported a one-state solution at this time, but would support partition if the one-state solution was unworkable.
- As the mandate drew to a close, leaders of the Jewish community met met to consider probable defense needs.
- The Committee rejected partition and recommended allowing 100,000 Jewish immigrants to enter Palestine. Palestine would remain a cultural "Jewish Homeland" but Jews and Arabs would work together. The report of the commission provides an excellent , as well as and its effects on European Jewry.
The Arab Office in Jerusalem rejected any partition plan or binational state, and called instead for the establishment of an Arab state in the whole of Palestine, that would safeguard the rights of the Jewish minority as well.
- The anti-Zionist American Council for Judaism proposed in effect, a trusteeship for Palestine that would limit immigration to absorptive capacity, without discriminating among immigrants of different origin, and without a realistic solution for Jewish displaced persons.
- An historic article outlining the case for Zionism and a democratic Jewish state just after World War II.
1944: - Ben Gurion's classic speech outlines his vision for the Jewish people and the Zionist movement, as well as particularistic political concerns.
- The had closed Palestine to Jewish immigration, trapping millions of Jews in Nazi occupied Europe. Zionist leaders met in the Biltmore Hotel in New York, and declared their support for a Jewish Commonwealth and renewed immigration, in open defiance of the British mandatory authorities.
Conference of Nazi leader chaired by Reinhard Heydrich that discussed the transportation of European Jews to the East, where they were to be murdered. The Wannsee conference did not decide on the "Final Solution." It discussed the implementation of the solution, which had been decided earlier.
- During the Pro-Axis Coup he engineered in Iraq, the Mufti issued a Fatwa calling for Holy War against Britain in a radio speech broadcast on Axis radio as well as in Iraq.
1939: - League of Nations Mandates commission found that British policy was not in conformance with the mandate, but did not make a unanimous recommendation to the League Council.
- This policy statement limited Jewish immigration to Palestine to 15,000 per year for five years, effectively rescinding the which had been the basis for the British Mandate.
- The British government decided to abandon the partition plan because the Arab state would not be economically viable.
1937 - - In 1937, King Saud explained to a retired British official, H.R.P. Dickson, why the Arabs would oppose partition of Palestine as recommended by the Peel Commission, and urged the British to stop Jewish immigration and not to make concessions to the Jews, who he said were 'a race accursed by God according to His Holy Book, and destined to final destruction and eternal damnation hereafter.' Saud's threat that the Arabs would abandon Britain if partition was implemented, may have been instrumental in shaping British policy in Palestine.
- The Peel Commission, set up after the Arab revolt had begun in 1936, recommended Partition of Palestine into a tiny Jewish area and a much larger Palestinian area.
1937 - In 1937, Reform Jewish leaders met and, for the first time, reversed the historic antipathy of reform Judaism to Zionism.
- Jabotinsky had come to Poland to warn Jews to leave before it was too late. The anti-Zionist Bund ridiculed him as a paper general and bade him "evacuate Poland."
- This letter explained that the British government had no intention of stopping immigration to Palestine, despite the Hope-Simpson report and Passfield White Paper.
- The Passfield White Paper, issued simultaneously with the Hope-Simpson report, adopted the provisions of the Hope-Simpson report and declared that the protection of the rights of Arab inhabitants was of equal importance to the mission of the British Mandate with the development of a Jewish National Home.
- (note - this is a very large document) The Hope Simpson report, issued following the riots of 1929, recommended the cessation of Jewish immigration to Palestine pending development of irrigation, which might allow the immigration of an additional 20,000 families.
1929 - - Brandeis, who was instrumental in the popularization of American Zionism, speaking before an emergency fundraising meeting at the start of the great depression, and following the murderous riots of 1929.
- This historic account explains the vicissitudes of Zionist land purchases in Palestine.
- This essay was published by the head of the Zionist Revisionist movement, Vladimir (Ze'ev) Jabotinsky in 1923. In reaction to riots that had occurred in 1920 and 1921. It called for an independent, legal Jewish defense force, a Jewish Legion in Palestine, which Jabotinsky referred to as an "Iron Wall."
1923 - Brandeis describing progress and raised funds for land purchase
1923 - - A prescient speech which singled out the real saving resource of the Zionist endeavor - the human resource, which is what was to make the Jewish state a reality and eventually, economically viable.
1923 - - American Zionist Leader Justice Louis Brandeis liked to compare Jewish Halutzim to American Pilgrims, as he did in this touching address to the Palestine Land Council in 1923.
- The League of Nations Mandate giving Great Britain control of Palestine for the purpose of making a Jewish national home there.
- Document that created, in effect, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, while reasserting the commitment of Great Britain to a Jewish National Home in Palestine west of the Jordan river.
- Prior to publication of the Churchill White paper, the document was circulated to both Zionist and Palestinian representatives, who commented on it.
1921- - Evidence that at least some British officials supported Jewish self-defense, and understood the Balfour declaration to be a commitment to foster a Jewish national home.
1920 - - Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis told the American delegation to the London Zionist meeting that the Zionist organization must be reorganized among more efficient principles, replacing many leaders.
1920 - - Address of American Zionist leader, Supreme Court Justice Louis D. Brandeis, to the Zionist meeting in London following World War I, calling for an effort to raise the sums and create the organization needed to settle and develop the Jewish national home that was promised by the Balfour declaration.
1920 - - Oath sworn by new recruits to the Hebrew clandestine defense forces ("Hebrew Defense Organization" - Irgun Hahagannah Hayehudi) - the
1920 - - The foundation principles of the Hebrew clandestine defense forces ("Hebrew Defense Organization" - Irgun Hahagannah Hayehudi) - the .
1920 - - Resolution of the 1920 San Remo conference of the four principal allied powers, concerning the distribution of class "A" mandates in the Middle East territories of the former Ottoman Empire. Syria was to have been an independent state. Palestine was to have been a Jewish homeland, but the mandate was not yet assigned to any country. This document should not be confused with a document called the "San Remo Convention" that appears in a few places on the Web, but which is identical to the text of the issued in London in 1922 by the League of Nations.
- In 1919, Lord Arthur Balfour, author of the Balfour declaration, wrote this document to introduce a history of Zionism written by Nahum Sokolov.
- The Zionist organization presented this statement at the Paris peace conference, outlining the Zionist position regarding Palestine, and supporting the British proposal for a mandate that would create a Jewish national home, in line with the . The statement provides a great deal of background regarding the position of various Zionist groups and foreign governments, and gives proposed borders for the Palestine mandate as well as proposals for organization of the Palestine government.
- Letters exchanged between Feisal, the son of Sharif Hussayn and US Justice Felix Frankfurter, at the Paris peace conference in 1919, assuring Dr. Frankfurter that Zionism had the support of the Arabs, and declaring that Zionism is a national movement and not an imperialist movement.
- Agreement between Feisal, the son of Sharif Hussayn, leader of the Arab revolt, and Dr. Chaim Weizmann, head of the Zionist movement, in which Zionists agreed to further Arab nationalist aims and Feisal agreed to support the Balfour declaration and large scale Jewish immigration to Palestine, provided that the Arabs received an independent state in Iraq and Syria. The British agreed instead to give Syria to the French.
An eminent Jewish scholar pleaded the case for a Jewish National Home in Palestine.
- The "letter" from Lord Balfour to Lord Rothschild, declaring that the British government "view with favor" the establishment of a Jewish National Home in Palestine. This was to be the basis of the League of Nations Mandate for Palestine, granted to Great Britain.
- This last recorded speech of Borochov represents a radical change in some respects from his earlier doctrinaire Marxist position and blind faith in historical inevitability, in favor of recognizing the importance of cultural factors in Zionist aspirations.
- Call for League of Nations, national self determination.
- Edwin Montagu, the only Jew in the British cabinet, was a bitter opponent of the Balfour declaration. In August of 1917, he presented the government with a memorandum claiming that the declaration was "anti-Semitic" and would result in the expulsion of Jews from Europe. The Jewish problem, Montagu believed was being solved by "progress."
1916: - A thank you speech for an award presented to Brandeis on his 60th birthday. It is interesting because of Brandeis' assertion about unity among Zionist ranks.
1916: Agreement between Mark Sykes for Britain and Georges Picot for France, granting parts of the Middle East to French and International Control.
- This article is a classic exposition of a central thesis of Socialist Zionism - the anomalous class structure of the Jewish people.
1916: - An organizational and fund raising speech.
1916: - The great American Zionist leader explains to a Chicago audience that Zionism is not merely a charity but a form of Jewish self help that will ultimately lead to liberation of the Jewish people. This speech introduced Shmarya Levin, the European Zionist who was frequently sent to the United States for fund raising purposes.
1916: - An organizational speech regarding war relief efforts and the work of the organizing committee of the American Jewish Congress.
1915 - Brandeis recognized the need for American Zionism to become a majority, if not a universal, force in American Judaism, in order to form a unified pressure group that could push for a Jewish national home at the end of the First World War.
- Letter from Sir Henry McMahon to Sherif Husayn (Hussein of Mecca) in 1915, reserving part of the area to be liberated from Turkish control for non-Arab control. The boundaries of the area specified were vague. Various commentators decided that the area did or did not include Palestine according to their partisan prejudices.
1915: - A patriotic fourth of July speech that also explains the foundation for Brandeis' conception of American Zionism and the place of Jews in America.
1915: - Remarks delivered before the Convention of the Federation of American Zionists held in Boston and Chelsea in June, 1915, including the famous Brandeis call to enroll every American Jew as a Zionist.
1915: - Speech articulating Brandeis's vision of Zionism as an American cause, given to Eastern Reform rabbis.
1915: - Brandeis's appeal to college educated Jews on behalf of Zionism, made in the journal of the intercollegiate Menorah society.
1914- - Appeal to American Jewry following Brandeis's election as chairman of the Provisional Zionist Committee.
1914- - Speech of Louis Brandeis accepting his election as chairman of the Provisional Zionist Committee in New York City, following the outbreak of World War I.
- Ruppin visited Palestine, saw the problems of Zionist settlement, proposed a solution, and was chosen to implement it.
Sets out the essentials of Borochovian Marxist Zionism.
- This brief survey by the co-founder of the Zionist movement explains Zionism, anti-Zionism, and Zionist aspirations in the formative stage of the movement.
One of the fathers of Socialist Zionism, Borochov pointed out the importance of nationalism, as well as economic motives, in history.
1903- - Nordau noted the progress and international recognition accumulated by the Zionist movement in the relatively brief period since its founding, discussing the seeming successes of the time in obtaining support for a Jewish state.
1902: - Theodor Herzl's novel of a modern, democratic, pluralistic Jewish state in Palestine, with equality for Arabs. In Hebrew, it was called "Tel Aviv."
- This article or pamphlet presents Syrkin's combination of non-Marxian socialism and Zionist nationalism.
- Achad Ha'am did not accept the political Zionism of Herzl, or the practical settlement approach of others. This article was a reaction to the first Zionist congress.
1897 - Max Nordau gave the opening address at the first Zionist congress, describing the pitiful plight of European Jews.
- Theodore Herzl organized the first Zionist Congress in Basle, Switzerland in 1897. Prior to the Congress, Zionist activities had been initiated by several different groups such as (lovers of Zion) with no central direction or political program. The Basle Congress was the foundation of a mass Zionist movement.
- This book became, essentially, the program of the Zionist movement and the embodiment of its common ideology. Complete downloadable source, with a historical preface.
- This eulogy of Leon Pinsker, written in 1891, shows clearly that Achad Ha'am was not opposed to the idea of settlement in Palestine, and that "cultural Zionism" and "practical Zionism" were not incompatible in his view.
1891 - - An analysis intended to show the evolution of the Zionist idea from Jewish orthodox traditions.
- Achad Ha'am believed that Zionist settlement in Palestine would never amount to anything important without a cultural revival of the Jewish people.
1885 - This platform reiterated Reform Jewish opposition to the idea of Jewish peoplehood.
1882: - This early Zionist pamphlet was written by Leon Pinsker after violent pogroms in Russia.
1882: - Document issued by the , a pioneer group in Constantinople, on their way to settle in the land of Israel.
1879 - - A letter describing the blood libel cases of 1873 and 1877, and asking for the help of the Alliance Israelite in combating the accusations.
1869- - The early reform Jewish movement in the USA, like German Reform Judaism, was opposed to the idea that there is a "Jewish People" and of return to Zion. This is implicit in the Philadelphia Platform of 1869.
1862: - This book was the first call for Jewish national liberation couched in terms of nationalism and based on socialist and liberalist ideals. It is presented here in three parts
1840 - - A plea for help from the Cairo Jewish community, describing the Damascus blood libel. This was perhaps the first case of persecution of Jews in Arab lands that was incited by Christians, and it was followed by others.
1834 - - An account of the 1834 Safed Pogrom and the helplessness of the Jews of Safed.
1815 - - A description by Captain James Riley of the collection of the Jizya tax and humiliation suffered by the Jews of Mogadore during this procedure.
- In this stillborn proclamation, Napoleon offered the Jews a state in Palestine under French protection. This was the first of many such nineteenth century projects for restoration of the Jews in Palestine.
1790 - - An account of the treatment of the Jews of Tetouan, Morocco, in 1790.
1755- - During the age of enlightenment, Pope Gregory XIV formally upheld the myth of ritual sacrifice of Christian children by Jews that is the basis of the . He reviewed the history of many such cases, and affirmed the beatification of two "child martyrs: and .
1576 - - Firman of the Sultan Murad III ordering the deportation of a thousand Jewish families from Safed to Cyprus. It was eventually withdrawn, but it was one of the many threatened calamities faced by Jews in the land of Israel under Muslim rule.
1555 - - An example of European anti-Semitism in the renaissance period, this Papal decree established the of Rome as well as re-imposing restrictions on Jewish dress and trades that had been enforced intermittently.
c. 1485 - An unabashedly bigoted report by a Franciscan friar, lauding the persecution of Jews in Jerusalem about 1500.
1354 - - An Egyptian Muslim ruler chooses to enforce the pact of Umar against the Christians and Jews.
c. 1290 - - Ghazi al Wasiti's polemical pamphlet attests to the existence of well rooted native anti-Semitism in medieval Muslim-Arab society.
1198 - - A first hand account of the forced conversion of the Jews, later rescinded.
- "My Heart is in the East and "Zion, surely thou art anxious.." - These poems are part of a rich legacy that kept alive the love of Zion, enriched the Hebrew language, and had a profound influence on modern Hebrew poetic idiom.
c 1090 - - Obadia, the Norman proselyte, authored this document recording the downtrodden condition of the Jews of Baghdad in the eleventh century.
c. 1066 - - Motivated by political rivalry, the poem is nonetheless evidence of Muslim anti-Semitism. This poem may have helped to incite the Granada pogrom. even in "golden" Spain.
c 820 - - Excerpts from a treatise by al-Jahiz that bear witness to early Muslim anti-Semitism.
c 800 - - Document attributed, probably falsely, to the Caliph Umar ibn al Khatib, and setting forth the conditions of second class citizenship to be applied to Christians, Jews and others.
Undated: - a list of bulls and other documents of the Catholic Church relating to Jews.
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