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This month most of the planetary action is the evening skies with all 5 bright planets visible in the first half of the month. Uranus potentially visible to the unaided eye. Venus bright in the west with Jupiter above it and Mercury below it. Saturn and Mars also grace the evening sky.

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October; Saturn and the Trifid and Lagoon Nebulae are still within a binocular field of view, but Saturn moves away from them closer to globular cluster M22. October 6; Moon at perigee. October 7; Daylight savings starts in NSW, VIC, TAS, and SA. . October 12; crescent Moon close to Jupiter. October 15; Saturn close to the waxing Moon. October 16; Venus and Mercury close. October 18; Moon at Apogee. October 18; Moon and Mars close. October 24; Uranus at opposition. October 27-31; Mercury close to Jupiter.

Looking up at the stars is still a rewarding pursuit, despite the increasing light pollution in our major cities. The southern sky is full of interesting objects, many of which go unseen in the northern hemisphere. All you need for a good nights viewing is yourself, a good idea of where south and east are, and your hands. Optional extras are a small pair of binoculars, taped over the business end and a note book. A great many tips for backyard astronomy may be found , although many of them are more relevant to the northern hemisphere. A general article on amateur astronomy from New Scientist is (may require subscription otherwise see the .).

This page is designed to give people a simple guide to the unaided eye sky. In the descriptions of planet and star positions, distances in the sky are given as "fingers width" and "hand span". This is the width of your hand (with all the fingers together as in making a "stop" sign, not bunched as a fist) or finger when extended a full arms length from you.

Spring is here! Spring brings the wattle flowers and a new round of interesting objects into view in the heavens. Scorpio and Sagittarius slowly leave our night skies to be replaced by Orion and its nebulae, and bright Sirius. The Southern Cross grazes the southern horizon before rising again in summer. It still gets very cold at night, so don't forget to rug up before doing any extended star watching. A blanket or rug to sit on is a good idea, as well as a thermos of your favorite hot beverage. While these pages are primarily intended for the use of people observing in Australia, non-Australian Southern Hemisphere observers will find most of the information here applies to them. The information will be most helpful, when you correct your location for latitude (see the section for appropriate location information). Most Moon phase, planet, comet and asteroid information will be very similar to what will be seen in New Zealand, South Africa and South America. Countries close to the equator (eg Indonesia) will have somewhat different southern and northern views, but the eastern and western views should be similar enough to get a good idea of what is going on.

Occultations, eclipses and aurora are highly location dependent, and it would be best to get a local almanac for these events. If there is no local almanac available, email me and I might be able to help you. I do try and give general info for occultations and eclipses in the Oceania area of the Southern Hemisphere.

Aurora Alert UPDATED 28/08/18: Despite solar maximum having passed, we are still getting occasional good auroral displays. August 26th 2018 saw an impressive display visible from NZ and Tasmania despite the full Moon. The last week of March 2017 saw some impressive aurora displays from Tasmania, Victoria, SA and WA. September 2016 saw a series of good but transient aurora in Tasmania and southern Victoria. July 2015 saw a massive storm seen as far north as mid NSW, again clouded out for large parts of Australia. 17-19/3/2015, the , massive storm seen as far north as Southern Queensland. Unfortunately clouded out for large parts of Australia. 26/2/2015, yet another good set of aurora were seen from Tasmania. 9/2/2015 There was a series of very good auroral events during January, some were seen in NSW, Victoria, SA and WA as well as Tasmania. Last year saw some nice events and a coronal mass ejection from an M class flare hit us square on on March 17 2013. Aurora were detected as far north as the QLD border, with some really nice events in Tasmania, and here are from that event. The Sun is now at solar maximum, but has been rather quite so far apart from the odd event like the 17 March 2013 one and the 22 February 2014 and the January 2015 events (and of course the St. Patrick's Day Storm). Although we should be exiting solar maximum in 2016 we may see more aurora in the near future.

Auroral images and descriptions from past geomagnetic storms are now at the .

We are now at the tail end of solar maximum in 2016, and we can expect to see a reducing frequency of aurora. There have been some good displays in Tasmania recently (the St. Patrick's Day storm was a beauty, see as far north as NSW). Tasmania, King Island and Southern Victoria are the most likely places to see aurora. However, on September 24, 2005 there was a massive auroral storm seen as far as northern NSW (and the 22 February 2014 one was seen as far north as southern NSW). Naturally, the best views of any aurora will be away from the city and bright lights. Aurora occur when charged particles from the solar wind enter Earths outer atmosphere and interact with the oxygen and nitrogen atoms producing eerie displays of coloured lights. During solar maximum, which occurs every 11 years, the number and speed of the particles are higher, allowing them to penetrate the Earth's magnetic field at lower latitudes than normal. Observers in Tasmania are likely to see green glows or sheets of light in the southern sky. Observers in Southern Victoria are more likely to see a red glow in the southern sky, although more spectacular displays are possible.

The has a devoted to this phenomenon. The covers Aurora and related phenomena in very great detail (too much if you don't know much about them) but has a nice . Flinders Uni also has , however, this will probably not mean much to most people.

Aurora will generally follow solar flares by about 2 days, and a number of instruments are watching the sun for these outbursts. The solar minimum occurred in 2006 and persisted for some time. While sunspot numbers, and hence flare rates are increasing, sometimes months will go by without an alert, then you have three in a week. The space weather site at gives notice of when solar winds likely to cause aurora will arrive. Alternatively, send an email to with "subscribe aurora alert" as the subject and I will send you an email alert of any likely auroral event (or other interesting sky phenomena). However, even a strong solar flare is no guarantee that you will be able to see aurora, but it does increase the probability. Still more alternatively, there are the facebook pages , and all do discussions and alerts.

I try to update this page fairly regularly outside of the monthly postings. However sometimes things happen which I can't get in fast enough, or you forget to mark your calendar. If you would like to be alerted to or reminded of interesting astronomical or sky phenomena, send an email to with "subscribe aurora alert" as the subject. This is the old aurora alert list, but with auroras rare even though we are at solar maximum (except for the occasional humdinger, like the September 2005 auroral event), it is doing double duty. will have images when possible of these events soon after. Coming events

1 January 2018; Mars three finger-widths from Jupiter in the morning skies

2 January 2018; Perigee ("Super") Moon

7 January 2018; Mars and Jupiter closest at 0.25 degrees.

12 January 2018; Crescent Moon, Mars and Jupiter form a triangle

13 January 2018; Mercury less than a finger-width from Saturn in the morning sky

15 January 2018; thin crescent Moon near Mercury and Saturn

27-31 January 2018; Asteroid Ceres visible in binoculars

31 January 2018; Blue Moon, Total Lunar Eclipse 11pm AEST

8 February 2018; Waning Moon close to Jupiter in Morning sky

10 February 2018; Waning Moon close to Mars

13 February 2018; Crescent Moon close to Saturn

4 March 2018; Venus and Mercury very close, low in the evening twilight

7 March 2018; Moon close to Jupiter

10-11 March 2018; Moon close to Mars

11-12 March 2018; Moon close to Saturn

19 March 2018; thin crescent Moon close to Mercury and Venus in evening twilight

20 March 2018; Mars close to Triffid Nebula

1-3 April 2018; Mars and globular cluster M22 less than a finger-width apart in morning sky

2 April 2018; Mars and Saturn close, a finger-width apart

3 April 2018; Moon close to Jupiter in evening sky

15 April 2018; thin crescent Moon close to Mercury in morning twilight

18 April 2018; crescent Moon close to Venus in evening sky

30 April 2018; Moon close to Jupiter in evening sky

1-30 May 2018; Saturn within 2finger-widths of globular cluster M22, closest on the 15th

4 May 2018; Moon close to Saturn.

6 May 2018; Moon close to Mars.

6 May 2018; Eta Aquariid meteor shower.

9 May 2018; Jupiter at opposition.

14-15 May 2018; Mars less than half a finger-width from globular cluster M75.

17-18 May 2018; crescent Moon close to Venus.

21 May 2018; Venus close to M35.

27 May 2018; Moon close to Jupiter.

1 June 2018; Moon and Saturn close.

3 June 2018; Moon and Mars close.

16 June 2018; Crescent Moon near Venus.

19 June 2018; Asteroid Vesta at opposition, potentially visible with the unaided eye.

20 June 2018; Venus in the Beehive cluster.

21 June 2018; crescent Moon and Venus close.

23 June 2018; Moon and Jupiter close.

27 June 2018; Saturn at opposition.

28 June 2018; Saturn close to the Moon.

1 July 2018; Mars and Moon close.

4 July 2018; Mercury close to Beehive cluster.

13 July 2018; Partial Eclipse of the sun, visible only southern SA and VIC.

15 July 2018; thin crescent Moon and Mercury close in the twilight.

16 July 2018; crescent Moon and Venus close.

21 July 2018; Moon and Jupiter close.

25 July 2018; Moon and Saturn close.

27 July 2018; Mars at Opposition, the best since 2003.

28 July 2018; Total Lunar Eclipse, early morning.

30 July 2018; Southern Delta Aquarids meteor shower.

14 August 2018; Crescent Moon close to Venus.

17 August 2018; Moon close to Jupiter.

21 August 2018; Moon close to Saturn.

30 August 2018; Saturn close to Triffid Nebula.

1-2 September 2018; Venus and Spica close.

12-13 September 2018; Crescent Moon close to Venus.

14 September 2018; crescent Moon close to Jupiter.

18 September 2018; Moon close to Saturn.

20 September 2018; Moon and Mars close.

10-20 October 2018; All 5 five bright planets visible in early evening sky.

10 October 2018; Mercury and Crescent Moon close.

11 October 2018; crescent Moon near Venus

12 October 2018; crescent Moon close to Jupiter.

15 October 2018; Moon close to Saturn.

16 October 2018; Venus and Mercury close.

18 October 2018; Moon close to Mars.

22 October 2018; Orionid meteor shower.

28 October 2018; Mercury and Jupiter close.

9 November 2018; Jupiter crescent Moon close.

11 November 2018; Crescent Moon and Saturn close.

16 November 2018; Moon close to Mars.

17 November 2018; Leonid Meteor Shower.

26 November 2018; Variable star Mira at its brightest

1-20 December 2018; Comet 46P potentially visible to the unaided eye.

4 December 2018; Crescent Moon close to Venus in morning twilight.

9 December 2018; Crescent Moon close to Saturn in evening twilight.

15 December 2018; Geminid Meteor shower.

14-15 December 2018; Moon close to Mars.

22 December 2018; Jupiter and Mercury very close in dawn sky.

Out in Space

surveys a mystery .

sees .

The sees .

The loks into the depths of the Great Red Spot .

Current Phase of the Moon.
This is a JavaScript applet kindly supplied by . It shows the Moon as Southern Hemisphere viewers see it, and is upside down from the Northern Hemisphere perspective.

DLast quarter on the 2nd
ONew Moon is on the 9th
C|First quarter on the 17th
OFull moon on the 25th

October 6; Moon at perigee. . October 12; crescent Moon close to Jupiter. October 15; Saturn close to the waxing Moon. October 18; Moon at Apogee. October 18; Moon and Mars close.

An interactive calendar of the .

A view of the phase of the Moon for from 1800 A.D. to 2199, US based, so that the Moon is upside down with respect to us. The image above is from this source.

The phases of the Moon have been linked in the popular imagination to activities as diverse as madness and menstruation. However, careful study has shown that there are no such links. This web page outlines how the with a wide range of human activities.

Planets:

Finding planets, even with the directions below, can sometimes be difficult if you are unfamiliar with the sky. However, the Moon is very obvious, and can be a guide to location of planets. Not only that, the combination of the Moon and bright planet(s) is often very beautiful. Thus the guide below gives the dates when the planets and the Moon are close together.

evening sky, 19:21 pm

The evening sky on Thursday October 11 facing west as seen from Adelaide at 20:22 ACDST 60 minutes after sunset, Venus and the crescent Moon are close. (The inset shows the telescopic view of Venus at this time, similar views will be seen Australia wide 60 minutes minutes after sunset).

evening sky, 19:30 pm

The evening sky facing west on Tuesday October 16 facing west as seen from Adelaide at 20:27 ACDST 60 minutes after sunset, Venus and Mercury are at their closest. (similar views will be seen Australia wide 60 minutes minutes after sunset).

evening sky, 19:35 pm

The evening sky facing north in Adelaide on October 18 at 20:59 ACDST 90 minutes after sunset showing Mars near the waxing Moon with Mars nearby. (similar views will be seen from other cities at the equivalent local time 90 minutes after sunset).

is is prominent in the evening sky this month. On October 1, Mercury is just under a finger-width above the western horizon half an hour after sunset. October 15, Mercury is just under a hand-span above the western horizon an hour after sunset. On October 16, Mercury and Venus are at their closest. On October 27-31 Mercury and Jupiter are just under a hand-span apart. On October 30, Mercury is just over two hand-spans above the western horizon half hour after sunset.

rapidly heads toward the horizon passing Mercury and disappears into the twilight in the latter part of the month. Venus is now a distinct very thin "crescent Moon" shape in telescopes. On October 1 Venus is just under three hand-spans above the horizon 90 minutes after Sunset. On October 11-12, crescent Venus, and the thin crescent Moon are two hand-spans apart. On October 15, Venus is just over a hand-span above the western horizon 60 minutes after Sunset. On October 16, Mercury and Venus are at their closest, a hand-span apart. By October 30, Venus is lost to view.

was at opposition on July 27, when it was biggest and brightest as seen from Earth, but while substantially dimming and shrinking Mars remains bright and worthy of telescope observation this month. Even small telescopes may reveal the polar cap and some of the more prominent markings, as the global dust storm has abated, although this may be more difficult towards the end of the month. Watching Mars over the the month in a telescope you should see Mars visibly decrease in size. Mars remains in Capricornius this month. On October 1 Mars is just above 13 hand-spans above the northern horizon an hour and a half after sunset. On October 15 Mars is 12 hand-spans above the northern horizon at hour and a half after sunset, and is at its highest at this time. On the 18th Mars is just over a hand-span from the waxing Moon. On the 30th Mars is just above 11 hand-spans above the north-western horizon an hour and a half after sunset.

, although past opposition, is excellent in the evening sky.

On October 1, Jupiter is nearly 4 hand-spans above the western horizon 90 minutes after sunset and sets around 10:00 pm local time. Jupiter is best for telescopic observation for a brief time in the early evening, setting shortly after astronomical twilight. Jupiter is in Libra all month. On October 11-12 the crescent Moon is under a hand-span from Jupiter. On October 15, Jupiter is just over 3 hand-spans above the western horizon 60 minutes after sunset, and is setting two and a half hours after sunset. On October 27-31, Jupiter and Mercury are less than a hand-span apart. By October 30, Jupiter is nearly a hand-span above the western horizon 60 minutes after sunset and sets around astronomical twilight, 90 minutes after sunset.

In either binoculars or a telescope Jupiter's Moons are always interesting. There are some nice transits coming up this month.

This table was created using The Planets 2.02 a free program available from Times are AEST, subtract 30 minutes for ACST and 3 hours for AWST. Add one hour for Daylight Saving time. GRS = Great Red Spot. S = Shadow Transit, T = Transit Mon 1 Oct 20:40 GRS: Crosses Central Meridian Thu 4 Oct 18:45 Gan: Shadow Transit Begins S Thu 4 Oct 20:33 Gan: Shadow Transit Ends Sat 6 Oct 19:50 GRS: Crosses Central Meridian Sat 6 Oct 19:59 Io : Disappears into Occultation Sun 7 Oct 19:21 Io : Transit Ends S Sun 7 Oct 20:09 Io : Shadow Transit Ends Sun 7 Oct 21:04 Eur: Disappears into Occultation Mon 8 Oct 21:29 GRS: Crosses Central Meridian Tue 9 Oct 19:56 Eur: Shadow Transit Ends Thu 11 Oct 19:00 GRS: Crosses Central Meridian Thu 11 Oct 19:35 Gan: Transit Begins T Sat 13 Oct 20:39 GRS: Crosses Central Meridian Sun 14 Oct 19:11 Io : Transit Begins T Sun 14 Oct 19:53 Io : Shadow Transit Begins ST Mon 15 Oct 19:23 Io : Reappears from Eclipse Tue 16 Oct 18:51 Eur: Transit Begins T Tue 16 Oct 20:15 Eur: Shadow Transit Begins ST Tue 16 Oct 21:12 Eur: Transit Ends S Thu 18 Oct 19:49 GRS: Crosses Central Meridian Mon 22 Oct 18:46 Gan: Reappears from Eclipse Tue 23 Oct 18:59 GRS: Crosses Central Meridian Thu 25 Oct 19:24 Eur: Reappears from Eclipse Thu 25 Oct 20:39 GRS: Crosses Central Meridian Mon 29 Oct 18:55 Gan: Disappears into Occultation Mon 29 Oct 20:33 Io : Disappears into Occultation Tue 30 Oct 19:49 GRS: Crosses Central Meridian Tue 30 Oct 19:54 Io : Transit Ends S Tue 30 Oct 20:20 Io : Shadow Transit Ends was at opposition, when it is biggest and brightest as seen from Earth on June 27. Nonetheless it is a very worthwhile telescopic target in the early evening. On October 1 Saturn is over 10 hand-spans above the western horizon 90 minutes after sunset. On the 1st Saturn is within three finger-widths of the Trifid and Lagoon nebulae. During the the month Saturn and the Trifid and Lagoon nebulae remain in the same binocular field, as Saturn slowly moves away from them towards M22. On the 15th Saturn is just over 8 hand-spans above the western horizon 90 minutes after sunset, and is setting around 1 am. On October 15 the waxing Moon is three finger-widths from Saturn. On the 30th Saturn is over 6 hand-spans above the western horizon 90 minutes after sunset. can be (just) seen with the naked eye in dark sky sites by people with good eye sight. It is at opposition, when it reaches a magnitude of 5.7, on the 24th. Uranus is in Pisces just below omicron Piscium. Uranus doesn't move much this month. Use the (30 Kb) to orient yourself and locate Aries and Pisces, then use this to hop to omicron Piscium and thence locate Uranus amongst the star field. Omicron Piscium and Uranus will be the two brightest objects in the field). The circle shows the field of view of a pair of 10x50 binoculars. Omicron Piscium is labelled on the maps which are in the same orientation. Iridium Flares, the International Space Station and other satellites

See this amazing site for taken through a telescope.

The Iridium satellites are being deorbited, so this is the last year you will have a chance to see these flares. Iridium flares add a bit of spectacle to the night sky. The Iridium satellite network was set up to give global phone coverage, so an Iridium satellite is almost always over head. Occasionally, one of the antenna of the satellites is aligned so that it reflects the sun towards an observer, giving a brilliant flare, often out-shining Venus. However, the visibility of Iridium flares is VERY dependent on observer position, so you need a prediction for your spot within about 30 km. Hence I'm referring you to a web site for predictions rather than doing it myself.

  • , an excellent site. You need to choose your location or manually enter a longitude and latitude (once done the site remembers this). Predicts Iridium Flare occurrence, and gives the visibility the space shuttle, the International space station and heaps of other satellites. I find this the most useful site.
newSee an Iridium Flare at your Location. Courtesy of . Choose your location from the drop down box Or type in Your Latitude and Longitude in decimal format eg Darwin is -12.461 130.840 , .
See the International Space Station at your Location. Courtesy of . Choose your location from the drop down box Or type in Your Latitude and Longitude in decimal format eg Darwin is -12.461 130.840 , .
Another site, JPASS, doesn't do Iridium flares, but is very cool and does the International Space Station, and many other satellites. However, although the output is flashy, it's harder to use than heavens above. showers: Date Meteor Shower ZHR Illumination 10/10/2018 Southern Tauirds 5 0.01 21/10/2018 Orionids 15 0.01

The figure ZHR is zenithal hourly rate. This is the number of meteors that a single observer would see per hour if the shower's "point of origin", or radiant, were at the zenith and the sky were dark enough for 6.5- stars to be visible to the naked eye. Illumination gives an idea of how dark the sky is, the lower the figure, the darker the sky.

morning sky, 3:00 pm

Morning sky facing north-east at 3:00 pm AEDST on 22 October, the Orionid radiant is indicated with a star burst.

The Orionids are a worthwhile shower, best seen between 2-4 am, the radiant being just under Betelgueuse, the bright red star in Orion. This year the almost New Moon will not affect rates. The best viewing is the mornings of the 21st and 22nd, when between 3-5 am under dark skies you should see about a meteor every 5 minutes.

Outside of the showers, you can still see sporadic meteors. Rates seen from the Southern Hemisphere are around 4 random meteors being seen per hour during the late morning hours and 1 per hour during the evening. The evening rates will be reduced during the times around the full Moon due to interference by the Moons light.

A good page describing meteor watching is at the site.

The of the Astronomical Society of Victoria has some good information on meteor watching too.

Learn how to take a meteor shower .

A Cool Fact about meteor

A good page on detecting meteors using home made radio-telescopes is .

A good page describing meteor watching is at the site.

The of the Astronomical Society of Victoria has some good information on meteor watching too.

Learn how to take a meteor shower .

A Cool Fact about meteor

A good page on detecting meteors using home made radio-telescopes is .

Comets:

There are no unaided eye comets visible at the moment.

A list of current comet ephemerides . Occultations:

No interesting naked-eye occultations this month.


 

Eclipse:

No significant eclipses this month.

Find local sunrise/sunset and twilight times for your city or location (courtesy of ).
Use either the drop down box for the listed cities, or type in your latitude, longitude and city in the boxes below.

Type in Your Latitude and Longitude in decimal format eg -12.461 130.840 , .

 

Variable Stars:

While most stars seem to shine with a constant brightness, there are some that undergo regular, dramatic change in brightness. The classic variables are Mira and Algol. Algol is currently not visible and Mira is too close to the horizon for easy observation.

Stars:

evening sky, 10:00 pm

The southern evening sky at 10:00 pm AEST in Melbourne on October 1 (similar views will be seen from other cities at the equivalent local time eg 10:00 pm ACST Adelaide).

All descriptions here are based on the view from Melbourne at 10.00 pm AEST (Australian Eastern Standard Time) on 1 October and assumes a fairly level horizon. Starset occurs progressively earlier each day, so these descriptions are valid for 9.00 pm on the 15th and 8.00pm on the 30th. Readers from other time zones should see roughly the same views at 10.00 pm local time. Corrections for cities other than Melbourne are given below.

  • Readers in Adelaide and Auckland should see roughly the same views at the local equivalent of 10.00 pm AEST.
  • Readers in Hobart and Christchurch must decrease descriptions to the North by about five finger widths and increase those to the south by the same amount.
  • Readers in Sydney, Fremantle, Perth, Santiago and Capetown should add 3 finger widths to the northern descriptions, and subtract 3 finger widths to the south.
  • Readers in Brisbane, Alice Springs, Rio deJanerio and Johannesburg must adjust North/South descriptions by two hand spans.
  • Readers in Darwin, Cairns, Brazilia, La Paz, Lusaka and Lima must adjust North/South descriptions by about 4-5 hand spans.

Facing east, the faint constellation of Erandius, the river, straddles the the horizon and meanders upwards and southwards to where brightest star, Achernar, points to the small Magellanic cloud.

To the left is Cetus, the whale. Beta Ceti is a modestly bright star six hand-spans above the horizon, the rest of Cetus is relatively faint. , Omicron Ceti (O on the maps) is a with a period of about 332 days.

Cetus also hosts a nearby sun like star. Tau Ceti is 11.4 light years away from earth, looking 10 hand-spans up from east and two to the left is magnitude 2 Deneb Kaitos, beta Ceti. Two hand-spans below and slightly to the left is eta Ceti, two hand-spans to the right of eta Ceti, forming a triangle with eta and beta, is Tau Ceti.

Five hand-spans to the left of Cetus is Pisces, a rather nondescript constellation.

Continuing on to the zenith we find bright Fomalhaut, alpha star of Piscis Austrinus. Next to Fomalhaut is Grus, the crane, with a distinctive, battered cross-like shape.

Looking westward from the zenith, about four hand-spans down and three to the right is the battered triangle of Capricornius, the Water Goat. Of interest as well is alpha Capricorni, the brightish star at top left hand corner of the triangle that is Capricorn. This is a naked eye double star.

About mid-sky, directly west is the distinctive "teapot" shape of Sagittarius, the archer. The "teapot" is upside down, the "spout" is pointing south-west, its "handle" north-east, and its "lid" points down to the right (north-eastern horizon). This constellations panoply of clusters and nebula are still easily seen.

M24, an open cluster about two finger-widths to the right and slightly down from the "lid" of the teapot should be visible to the naked eye, just above this and slightly to the left by about a hand span is a number of open clusters and a patch of luminosity that marks the lagoon nebula. M22, a globular cluster, is close to the lid (between and about a finger-widths left of the two stars that make the bottom of the lid), should be visible as a dim, fuzzy star on a dark night. Between these clusters and the "lid" itself runs the Great Sagittarius Starcloud. The center of our galaxy lies in Sagittarius, and on a dark night, the traceries of the Milky Way and its dust clouds are particularly beautiful. A high definition map of Sagittarius can be found .

Continuing on west, the rambling constellation of Ophiuchus occupies the space between Sagittarius and the western horizon.

Directly to the left of Ophiuchus the distinctive "hook" shape of Scorpio, the scorpion, stretches down towards the western horizon. Going up from the south-western horizon by about one and a half hand-spans you will see six bright stars forming a T, with the tail of the "T" nearly perpendicular to the horizon and a curved "tail" of stars. The bright red giant star Antares (Alpha Scorpius, the middle star in the three stars forming the tail of the T) is quite prominent. The area around Scorpio is quite rewarding in binoculars, and there is a small but pretty globular cluster about one finger-width above and to the north of Antares (between Antares and the leading star of the tail of the T). It can be hard to see in city conditions, and will be especially difficult to see this close to the horizon. A high definition map of is here. Just before the point where the tail curves around is a series of star clusters that make up the so-called false comet. The illusion of a comet is quite strong in small binoculars as well, but in stronger binoculars the clusters are quite clear.

Returning to the Zenith and working towards the northern horizon. 6 hand-spans down from the zenith is the faint but rambling constellation of Aquarius.

12 hand-spans down from the Zenith (and six above the northern horizon) is the start of the constellation Pegasus, the winged horse. The distinctive box shape of the main constellation lies around three hand-spans to the right of due north.

At the same level as Pegasus, but seven hand-spans to the left is the three bright stars that mark Aquila, the Eagle, with the brightest, white Altair, being in the center.

Continuing down towards the northern horizon, the next bright star is just a hand-span above the horizon, and three hand-spans to the left of due north. This is Deneb, alpha star of Cygnus, the swan. The rest of the constellation forms a wide but distinctive inverted cross above Deneb with the long axis pointing west, almost parallel to the horizon.

Now return to the zenith and go South. Directly south below Grus brings you to the edge of the dim constellation of Tucana, the Toucan. About four hand-spans below the zenith, directly on due north, is Alpha Tucana. Just below Tucana and about a hand-span and a half to the left is the Small Magellanic cloud, the second largest of the dwarf satellite galaxies to the Milky Way. This feature is best viewed on a dark night, away from the city. In this nebulosity is what looks to be a fuzzy star, this is 47 Tucana (marked 104 on the map), a spectacular globular cluster that is very nice through binoculars.

To the right of alpha Tucana by around three hand-spans is Peacock, alpha Pavonis, is a reasonably bright magnitude 2 star that heads the large, but dim, constellation of Pavo the Peacock. Delta Pavonis, about two hand-spans below and one to the left of alpha Pavonis, is one of the handful of sun-like stars within 20 light years of Earth that might have terrestrial planets in its habitable zone.

To the right of and some what below Delta Pavonis by about 4 hand-spans is the boxy shape of Ara, the Altar.

To the left of alpha Tucana by 5 hand-spans is Ankaa, alpha Phoenicis, of the constellation of the Phoenix, another relatively nondescript constellation.

To the left of alpha Tucana by 5 hand-spans and down by about one is bright Achernar, alpha Erandius.

Continuing directly down from alpha Tucana by four hand-spans is Octans, the octant (a navigating instrument the was the forerunner of the sextant). Octans houses the south celestial pole, and the faint Sigma Octanis, the South Polar star, which is the southern equivalent of Polaris. At magnitude 5.5 you will be stretched to see it under city conditions, but it is six hand-spans directly below alpha Tucana, forming the apex of an inverted triangle with two other faint stars (tau and chi Octanis).

Directly below Octans by around three hand-spans is the faint Chameleon, a narrow "kite" of four stars with the long axis parallel to the horizon. To the left of Chameleon by a little over 3 hand-spans is the extended nebulosity of the Large Magellanic cloud, the largest of the dwarf satellite galaxies. Binoculars will reveal a rather attractive nebula near it, the Tarantula nebula.

To the right of Chameleon by around five hand-spans are the bright, distinctive alpha and beta Centauri, the so called "pointers", 4 hand-spans from the south-west horizon, with alpha being the yellow star which is furthest from the horizon, and beta the blue white star below. Between these stars and Chameleon lies the faint constellation Musca the fly. Between the pointers and Pavo lie the dim triangular constellations of Triangulum and Circinus (the compass). Most of the rest of Centarus, the Centaur, is too close to, or below, the Horizon to be seen properly.

Alpha Centauri is the closest star to our sun at around 4 light years. However, recent measurements with the Hippacaros satellite put the system 300 million kilometers further away than previously thought. Alpha centauri is actually a triple star, consisting of two sun-like stars and a red dwarf, Proxima centauri, which is the closest of the triple stars to earth.

Returning to alpha Centauri, following a line south through the "pointers" brings you to the Southern Cross, two hand-spans below and to the left the pointers (one and a half hand-spans from beta Centauri to beta Crucis) and two hand-spans above the horizon at about the 5 o'clock position on a clock. A high definition map of Centaurus and Crux is .

The Southern Cross is, as expected, a cross shaped formation with Acrux (alpha Crucis) and gamma Crucis forming the long axis of the cross (pointing down to the south-west, with bright Acrux on the end of the axis away from the horizon). Beta and delta Crucis, now nearly horizontal, form the cross piece of the cross. Just to the right Acrux is the coal sack. This dark area against the glow of the milky way represents a large dust cloud and is usually clearly visible in dark skies, but will be hard to see this close to the horizon. The Jewel box in the Cross is a small open cluster just above Beta Crucis. It is quite beautiful, but requires strong binoculars or a small telescope to see properly.

Just on the southern horizon, almost due south is Carina (the keel of the former constellation Argo Navis). Its position makes viewing the many spectacular clusters in this constellation difficult or impossible. However, bright Canopus is now two hand-spans from the south-eastern horizon, almost directly below the large Magellanic cloud, and will continue to rise in the following weeks.

Sky Maps

How to use the maps

      map viewsky view

Comparison of a section of a skymap showing the Southern Cross (Crux) and pointers, with the appearance of the night sky. The map and sky are for October 1 at 10.00 pm, facing south. Both show approximately 30 degrees (5 hand-spans) of sky just above the horizon

The maps look a little busy, as they cover all sky from horizon to zenith. The grid lines are navigational helpers; each horizontal or vertical line covers 30 degrees of arc (the gridlines in the illustration show 15 degrees of arc), which is roughly five hand-spans (where a hand-span is the width of your hand, held flat light a "stop" sign at arms length). As you can see from the way the lines bunch up. The map is a little distorted, due to trying to project a spherical surface on a flat surface. The horizon is the lowest curved line on the map (for technical software reasons I can't block things out below the Horizon). Constellations are linked by lines and their names are in italics. Stars are shown as circles of varying size, the bigger the circle the brighter the star. The stars are named with their Bayer letter (eg a - alpha, the brightest star in a constellation, a Crucis is the brightest star in Crux). Variable stars are shown as hollow circles, double stars are marked with a line (eg a, b and g Crucis are all double stars, that look quite beautiful in a small telescope). Clusters and Nebula brighter than magnitude 6.0 are marked as broken circles (eg. the Jewel box cluster next to b Crucis above which is best viewed in binoculars or a telescope) and squares respectively. To find Crux for example, locate Crux on the appropriate map (eg. see the illustration above). Holding the Map, face either east or west (depending on the map), then use the grid lines to determine how far over and up you should look, then look for the Crux pattern in that part of the Sky.

GIF Maps

A view of the Eastern October sky at 10.00pm AEST on 1 October can be downloaded here ( 30 Kb) and a view of the western October sky can be downloaded here ( 30 Kb). These are more compact files but don't have a lot of resolution.

PDF Maps

High Resolution PDF files can be obtained for the and the .

The shows you the whole sky. You will need to face the one of the compass points, then hold the map with the appropriate compass point on the map at the bottom of the page.

You will need a PDF viewer such as or to view and print them. They look slightly worse on-screen than the PNG files, but print much better and come with legends.

[] [] [] [] [] [] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

Cheers! And good star gazing!

updated Some of the photographs/images I have taken in recent years of astronomical phenomena that may be of interest.
  • . Partial Lunar eclipse, July 5, 2001
  • . Pictures from the Dec 4, 2002 solar eclipse in South Australia
  • 7 May 2003
  • 24 Nov 2003
  • , taken, after an enormous struggle, with my webcam, April 2005
  • , more fun with my webcam, April-May 2005
  • Animation of November 2006
  • Animation of May 2007

Links

Societies: Australian Resources:
  • . High quality, monthly maps for Southern and Northern Skies, has lists of interesting objects. Requires Adobe Acrobat to print.
  • - Web based telescope/eyepiece calculator and other southern sky tidbits.
  • , lots of helpful hints.
  • the proposed search for Near Earth Objects including meteroids.
  • Canberra
  • .
  • , Australia's Astronomy magazine.
  • Australian Volunteers events diary.
Australian Planetariums: updated Astronomy for Kids
  • , Games, information and more.
  • NASA space information for kis 5-13.
  • , Games, information and more.
  • (different site to the one above, and a bit simple, but lots of good images).
  • from Astronomy Magazine
International Resources: Stunning sites:
  • orbiting the Earth in real time! Simply amazing!
  • The Anglo Australian Observatories 3D virtual tour through a . Mind Blowing!
  • Views of extrasolar planets seen from the Southern sky, stunning Java-driven map with heaps of (complex) info.
Useful programs:
  • , free (but large) photorealistic sky charting software. What I use for the horizon views.
  • , free 3D space travel software, see the Earth from Mars, see the Moon of EL62, see Saturn rise on Titan.

Charts, Books and Software for Astronomy

If you would like to have charts available all the time, rather than relying on mine, for between - you can pick up a planisphere from a newsagent or bookshop (or for a bit more you can get fancy ones from Australian Geographic, the ABC shop or the other Australian Geographic look alike shop, or the Wilderness Society, or even a binocular/ optical store). The planisphere won't give you position of the planets, so you will need to get the planet rise/set times. These can be found in most serious newspapers (the Age, the Australian, SMH etc. The Australian is probably the best bet for budding amateurs). The combination of planisphere and rise/set times is the best value for beginners though, if you are not too worried about identifying star clusters in your binoculars.

Touring the Universe through Binoculars Atlas is now freeware it can print observing charts, but has a few annoying quirks. These include having no horizon line, and moving about is a bit irritating.

I use a combination of a 1962 star chart, the and . I highly recommend the . It is more helpful for planetary/comet/asteroidal observations and eclipses than for double stars, clusters galaxies etc, but is an excellent resource for Australian observers and anyone who would like to seriously follow the planets in Australia should have this almanac. It has easy to follow month-by-month summary information, as well as detailed charts, tables and whole sky maps. It is easily navigated. The Almanac is often in big bookstores or optical shops, or email to purchase a copy directly for those outside major population centres. The Australian Astronomy almanac comes out in around November for the following year, and is now approx .

Sky and Telescope now also do an of their magazine.

For detailed chart drawing and timing of events, as well as satellite track predictions I feed the information from the almanac into the 0 AUD , planetarium program. This is a very handy program which prints maps of every possible orientation and scale. The maps on this page are produced by SkyMap. An update to SkyMap 12.0 which handles Windows 10 is now available.

A shareware version of SkyMap that runs on windows 3.x, and win95 can be found here this is approximately 640 Kb zipped.

A shareware version of the win95 only version 5.0 is here

Other highly recommended Sky charting packages (win95/98/2000/XP/Win7-10 sorry) are:
Cartes du Ciel at (FREE) stunning photorealistic program, but requires a grunty PC.
Various packages from US to 9 US
various versions from US for the basic pack (10 day trial of the basic pack at ) up.
Earth Centered Universe AUD (shareware version at )
On the other hand a standard Sky Atlas for serious observing (much handier than carting a computer with you) such as Norton's Star Atlas can range from to .

In these days of hand-held devices (smart phones and tablets), there is a plethora of sky charting apps you can take into the field with you. I use GoogleSky for android and a cut down version of Stellarium for iPad, my most used hand-held app is Heavens Above for Android, for watching Iridium flares and ISS passes. This is one app that has changed my astronomical life. There are many more, many free or less than 1 AUD to download. Celestron has a great free planetarium app (although big at 154 Mb) for Android, iPhone and iPad, SkyPortal.

This is not meant to be a product endorsement of any kind (outside of the . For any budding astronomers out there, it is fantastic value and no, I don't have any commercial interest in it, but I did win bronze in their website Olympics).

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