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This article is about generation of electricity using solar energy. For other uses of solar energy, see .

Not to be confused with .

Solar power is the from into , either directly using (PV), indirectly using , or a combination. Concentrated solar power systems use or and to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Photovoltaic cells convert light into an using the .

Photovoltaics were initially solely used as a source of for small and medium-sized applications, from the powered by a single solar cell to remote homes powered by an rooftop PV system. Commercial concentrated solar power plants were first developed in the 1980s. The 392 MW installation is the largest concentrating solar power plant in the world, located in the of .

As the cost of solar electricity has fallen, the number of grid-connected has and utility-scale with hundreds of megawatts are being built. Solar PV is rapidly becoming an inexpensive, low-carbon technology to harness from the Sun. The current largest photovoltaic power station in the world is the 850 MW Solar Park, in , .

The projected in 2014 that under its "high renewables" scenario, by 2050, solar photovoltaics and concentrated solar power would contribute about 16 and 11 percent, respectively, of the , and solar would be the world's largest source of electricity. Most solar installations would be in and . In 2017, solar power provided 1.7% of total worldwide electricity production, growing at 35% per annum.

Contents

Mainstream technologies

Many industrialized nations have installed significant solar power capacity into their grids to supplement or provide an alternative to sources while an increasing number of less developed nations have turned to solar to reduce dependence on expensive imported fuels (see ). Long distance transmission allows remote resources to displace fossil fuel consumption. Solar power plants use one of two technologies:

Photovoltaics

Main article:

A , or photovoltaic cell (PV), is a device that converts light into electric current using the . The first solar cell was constructed by in the 1880s. The German industrialist was among those who recognized the importance of this discovery. In 1931, the German engineer Bruno Lange developed a photo cell using in place of , although the prototype cells converted less than 1% of incident light into electricity. Following the work of in the 1940s, researchers Gerald Pearson, and Daryl Chapin created the solar cell in 1954. These early solar cells cost 286 USD/watt and reached efficiencies of 4.5–6%.

The array of a , or PV system, produces direct current (DC) power which fluctuates with the sunlight's intensity. For practical use this usually requires conversion to certain desired voltages or alternating current (AC), through the use of . Multiple solar cells are connected inside modules. Modules are wired together to form arrays, then tied to an inverter, which produces power at the desired voltage, and for AC, the desired frequency/phase.

Many residential PV systems are connected to the grid wherever available, especially in developed countries with large markets. In these , use of energy storage is optional. In certain applications such as satellites, lighthouses, or in developing countries, batteries or additional power generators are often added as back-ups. Such permit operations at night and at other times of limited sunlight.

Concentrated solar power

Main article:

Concentrated solar power (CSP), also called "concentrated solar thermal", uses lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to concentrate sunlight, then use the resulting heat to generate electricity from conventional steam-driven turbines.

A wide range of concentrating technologies exists: among the best known are the , the , the and the . Various techniques are used to track the sun and focus light. In all of these systems a is heated by the concentrated sunlight, and is then used for power generation or energy storage. Thermal storage efficiently allows up to 24-hour electricity generation.

A parabolic trough consists of a linear parabolic reflector that concentrates light onto a receiver positioned along the reflector's focal line. The receiver is a tube positioned along the focal points of the linear parabolic mirror and is filled with a working fluid. The reflector is made to follow the sun during daylight hours by tracking along a single axis. Parabolic trough systems provide the best land-use factor of any solar technology. The plants in California and Acciona's near are representatives of this technology.

Compact Linear Fresnel Reflectors are CSP-plants which use many thin mirror strips instead of parabolic mirrors to concentrate sunlight onto two tubes with working fluid. This has the advantage that flat mirrors can be used which are much cheaper than parabolic mirrors, and that more reflectors can be placed in the same amount of space, allowing more of the available sunlight to be used. Concentrating linear fresnel reflectors can be used in either large or more compact plants.

The Stirling solar dish combines a parabolic concentrating dish with a which normally drives an electric generator. The advantages of Stirling solar over photovoltaic cells are higher efficiency of converting sunlight into electricity and longer lifetime. Parabolic dish systems give the highest efficiency among CSP technologies. The 50 kW in , Australia is an example of this technology.

A solar power tower uses an array of tracking reflectors () to concentrate light on a central receiver atop a tower. Power towers can achieve higher (thermal-to-electricity conversion) efficiency than linear tracking CSP schemes and better energy storage capability than dish stirling technologies. The and are examples of this technology.

Hybrid systems

A hybrid system combines (C)PV and CSP with one another or with other forms of generation such as diesel, wind and . The combined form of generation may enable the system to modulate power output as a function of demand or at least reduce the fluctuating nature of solar power and the consumption of non renewable fuel. Hybrid systems are most often found on islands.

CPV/CSP system A novel solar CPV/CSP hybrid system has been proposed, combining concentrator photovoltaics with the non-PV technology of concentrated solar power, or also known as concentrated solar thermal. system The in Algeria, is an example of combining CSP with a gas turbine, where a 25-megawatt CSP- array supplements a much larger 130 MW . Another example is the in Iran. Hybrid PV/T), also known as photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collectors convert solar radiation into thermal and electrical energy. Such a system combines a solar (PV) module with a in a complementary way. A concentrated photovoltaic thermal hybrid (CPVT) system is similar to a PVT system. It uses (CPV) instead of conventional PV technology, and combines it with a solar thermal collector. It combines a photovoltaic system with a . Combinations with are possible and include . PV- system Thermoelectric, or "thermovoltaic" devices convert a temperature difference between dissimilar materials into an electric current. Solar cells use only the high frequency part of the radiation, while the low frequency heat energy is wasted. Several patents about the use of thermoelectric devices in tandem with solar cells have been filed. The idea is to increase the efficiency of the combined solar/thermoelectric system to convert the solar radiation into useful electricity.

Development and deployment

See also: , , , and

Deployment of Solar Power

Capacity in by Technology

100,000

200,000

300,000

400,000

2007

2010

2013

2016

Solar Electricity Generation Year Energy () % of Total 2004 2.6 0.01% 2005 3.7 0.02% 2006 5.0 0.03% 2007 6.8 0.03% 2008 11.4 0.06% 2009 19.3 0.10% 2010 31.4 0.15% 2011 60.6 0.27% 2012 96.7 0.43% 2013 134.5 0.58% 2014 185.9 0.79% 2015 253.0 1.05% 2016 328.2 1.31% 2017 442.6 1.73% Sources:

Early days

The early development of solar technologies starting in the 1860s was driven by an expectation that coal would soon become scarce. installed the world's first rooftop photovoltaic solar array, using 1%-efficient cells, on a New York City roof in 1884. However, development of solar technologies stagnated in the early 20th century in the face of the increasing availability, economy, and utility of coal and . In 1974 it was estimated that only six private homes in all of North America were entirely heated or cooled by functional solar power systems. The and caused a reorganization of energy policies around the world and brought renewed attention to developing solar technologies. Deployment strategies focused on incentive programs such as the Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program in the US and the Sunshine Program in Japan. Other efforts included the formation of research facilities in the United States (SERI, now ), Japan (), and Germany (). Between 1970 and 1983 installations of photovoltaic systems grew rapidly, but falling oil prices in the early 1980s moderated the from 1984 to 1996.

Mid-1990s to early 2010s

In the mid-1990s, development of both, residential and commercial as well as utility-scale , began to accelerate again due to supply issues with oil and natural gas, , and the improving economic position of PV relative to other energy technologies. In the early 2000s, the adoption of —a policy mechanism, that gives renewables priority on the grid and defines a fixed price for the generated electricity—lead to a high level of investment security and to a soaring number of PV deployments in Europe.

Current status

For several years, worldwide growth of solar PV was driven by , but has since shifted to Asia, especially and , and to a growing number of countries and regions all over the world, including, but not limited to, , , , , , , , , , and the .

Worldwide growth of photovoltaics has averaged 40% per year from 2000 to 2013 and total installed capacity reached 303 GW at the end of 2016 with having the most cumulative installations (78 GW) and having the highest theoretical percentage of annual electricity usage which could be generated by solar PV (12.5%). The largest manufacturers are located in China.

Concentrated solar power (CSP) also started to grow rapidly, increasing its capacity nearly tenfold from 2004 to 2013, albeit from a lower level and involving fewer countries than solar PV.:51 As of the end of 2013, reached 3,425 MW.

Forecasts

In 2010, the predicted that global solar PV capacity could reach 3,000 GW or 11% of projected global electricity generation by 2050—enough to generate 4,500  of electricity. Four years later, in 2014, the agency projected that, under its "high renewables" scenario, solar power could supply 27% of global electricity generation by 2050 (16% from PV and 11% from CSP).

Photovoltaic power stations

Main article:

The is a 550 MW power plant in , that uses made by . As of November 2014, the 550 megawatt was the largest photovoltaic power plant in the world. This was surpassed by the 579 MW complex. The current largest photovoltaic power station in the world is Solar Park, in , , .

Largest PV power stations as of August 2018 Name Country Location Capacity
Generation
p.a. Size
km² Year Ref   7003154700000000000♠1,547 43 2016   7003100000000000000♠1,000 24 2017   , 7003100000000000000♠1,000 2016   7002850000000000000♠850 23 2015   7002750000000000000♠750 2018   7002746000000000000♠746 40 2017   7002648000000000000♠648 10.1 2016   7002600000000000000♠600 53 2017 (I and II)   7002579000000000000♠579 7003166400000000000♠1,664 13 2015   7002550000000000000♠550 7003130100000000000♠1,301 24.6 2014

Concentrating solar power stations

Main article:

Commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) plants, also called "solar thermal power stations", were first developed in the 1980s. The 377 MW , located in California's Mojave Desert, is the world’s largest solar thermal power plant project. Other large CSP plants include the (150 MW), the (150 MW), and (150 MW), all in Spain. The principal advantage of CSP is the ability to efficiently add thermal storage, allowing the dispatching of electricity over up to a 24-hour period. Since peak electricity demand typically occurs at about 5 pm, many CSP power plants use 3 to 5 hours of thermal storage.

Name Capacity
() Location Notes 392 , , USA Operational since February 2014. Located southwest of . 354 , , USA Commissioned between 1984 and 1991. Collection of 9 units. 280 , USA Completed December 2014 280 , USA Completed October 2013
Includes a 6h 250 , USA Completed April 2014 200 , Spain Completed 2012–2013 160 Morocco Completed 2016 150 , Spain Completed in 2010 150 , Spain Completed 2011. Includes a 7.5h thermal energy storage. 150 , Spain Completed 2010–2012
Extresol 3 includes a 7.5h thermal energy storage For a more detailed, sourced and complete list, see: or corresponding article.

Economics

Cost

The typical cost factors for solar power include the , the frame to hold them, wiring, inverters, labour cost, any land that might be required, the grid connection, maintenance and the solar insolation that location will receive. Adjusting for inflation, it cost per watt for a solar module in the mid-1970s. Process improvements and a very large boost in production have brought that figure down to 68 cents per watt in February 2016, according to data from Bloomberg New Energy Finance. California signed a wholesale purchase agreement in 2016 that secured solar power for 3.7 cents per kilowatt-hour. And in sunny large-scale solar generated electricity sold in 2016 for just 2.99 cents per kilowatt-hour – "competitive with any form of fossil-based electricity — and cheaper than most."

Photovoltaic systems use no fuel, and modules typically last 25 to 40 years. Thus, capital costs make up most of the cost of solar power. Operations and maintenance costs for new utility-scale solar plants in the US are estimated to be 9 percent of the cost of photovoltaic electricity, and 17 percent of the cost of solar thermal electricity. Governments have created various financial incentives to encourage the use of solar power, such as . Also, impose a government mandate that utilities generate or acquire a certain percentage of renewable power regardless of increased energy procurement costs. In most states, RPS goals can be achieved by any combination of solar, wind, biomass, , ocean, geothermal, , hydroelectric, hydrogen, or fuel cell technologies.

Levelized cost of electricity

The PV industry is beginning to adopt (LCOE) as the unit of cost. The electrical energy generated is sold in units of (kWh). As a rule of thumb, and depending on the local , 1 watt-peak of installed solar PV capacity generates about 1 to 2 kWh of electricity per year. This corresponds to a of around 10–20%. The product of the local cost of electricity and the insolation determines the break even point for solar power. The International Conference on Solar Photovoltaic Investments, organized by , has estimated that PV systems will pay back their investors in 8 to 12 years. As a result, since 2006 it has been economical for investors to install photovoltaics for free in return for a long term . Fifty percent of commercial systems in the United States were installed in this manner in 2007 and over 90% by 2009.

has said that, as of 2012, unsubsidised solar power is already competitive with fossil fuels in India, Hawaii, Italy and Spain. He said "We are at a tipping point. No longer are renewable power sources like solar and wind a luxury of the rich. They are now starting to compete in the real world without subsidies". "Solar power will be able to compete without subsidies against conventional power sources in half the world by 2015".

Current installation prices

In its 2014 edition of the Technology Roadmap: Solar Photovoltaic Energy report, the International Energy Agency (IEA) published prices for residential, commercial and utility-scale for eight major markets as of 2013 (see table below). However, DOE's has reported much lower U.S. installation prices. In 2014, prices continued to decline. The SunShot Initiative modeled U.S. system prices to be in the range of .80 to .29 per watt. Other sources identify similar price ranges of .70 to .50 for the different market segments in the U.S., and in the highly penetrated German market, prices for residential and small commercial rooftop systems of up to 100 kW declined to .36 per watt (€1.24/W) by the end of 2014. In 2015, Deutsche Bank estimated costs for small residential rooftop systems in the U.S. around .90 per watt. Costs for utility-scale systems in China and India were estimated as low as .00 per watt.

Typical PV system prices in 2013 in selected countries (USD) USD/W  Residential 1.8 1.5 4.1 2.4 2.8 4.2 2.8 4.91  Commercial 1.7 1.4 2.7 1.8 1.9 3.6 2.4 4.51  Utility-scale 2.0 1.4 2.2 1.4 1.5 2.9 1.9 3.31 Source: – Technology Roadmap: Solar Photovoltaic Energy report, September 2014:15
1U.S figures are lower in DOE's Photovoltaic System Pricing Trends

Grid parity

Main article:

Grid parity, the point at which the cost of photovoltaic electricity is equal to or cheaper than the price of , is more easily achieved in areas with abundant sun and high costs for electricity such as in and . In 2008, The levelized cost of electricity for solar PV was

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.25/kWh or less in most of the countries. By late 2011, the fully loaded cost was predicted to fall below

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.15/kWh for most of the and to reach .10/kWh in sunnier regions. These cost levels are driving three emerging trends: vertical integration of the supply chain, origination of (PPAs) by solar power companies, and unexpected risk for traditional power generation companies, and .[]

Grid parity was first reached in in 2013, and other islands that otherwise use () to produce electricity, and most of the US is expected to reach grid parity by 2015.[]

In 2007, 's Chief Engineer predicted grid parity without subsidies in sunny parts of the United States by around 2015; other companies predicted an earlier date: the cost of solar power will be below grid parity for more than half of residential customers and 10% of commercial customers in the , as long as grid electricity prices do not decrease through 2010.

Productivity by location

See also:

The productivity of solar power in a region depends on , which varies through the day and is influenced by and .

The locations with highest annual solar irradiance lie in the arid tropics and subtropics. Deserts lying in low latitudes usually have few clouds, and can receive sunshine for more than ten hours a day. These hot deserts form the Global Sun Belt circling the world. This belt consists of extensive swathes of land in , , , , and , as well as the much smaller deserts of and . Africa's eastern , also known as the , has been observed to be the sunniest place on Earth according to NASA.

Different measurements of (direct normal irradiance, global horizontal irradiance) are mapped below :

  • North America

  • South America

  • Europe

  • Africa and Middle East

  • South and South-East Asia

  • Australia

  • World

Self consumption

In cases of self consumption of the solar energy, the payback time is calculated based on how much electricity is not purchased from the grid. For example, in Germany, with electricity prices of 0.25 €/kWh and of 900 kWh/kW, one kWp will save €225 per year, and with an installation cost of 1700 €/KWp the system cost will be returned in less than seven years. However, in many cases, the patterns of generation and consumption do not coincide, and some or all of the energy is fed back into the grid. The electricity is sold, and at other times when energy is taken from the grid, electricity is bought. The relative costs and prices obtained affect the economics. In many markets, the price paid for sold PV electricity is significantly lower than the price of bought electricity, which incentivizes self consumption. Moreover, separate self consumption incentives have been used in e.g. Germany and Italy. Grid interaction regulation has also included limitations of grid feed-in in some regions in Germany with high amounts of installed PV capacity. By increasing self consumption, the grid feed-in can be limited without curtailment, which wastes electricity.

A good match between generation and consumption is key for high self consumption, and should be considered when deciding where to install solar power and how to dimension the installation. The match can be improved with batteries or controllable electricity consumption. However, batteries are expensive and profitability may require provision of other services from them besides self consumption increase. with electric heating with heat pumps or resistance heaters can provide low-cost storage for self consumption of solar power. Shiftable loads, such as dishwashers, tumble dryers and washing machines, can provide controllable consumption with only a limited effect on the users, but their effect on self consumption of solar power may be limited.

Energy pricing and incentives

Main article:

The political purpose of incentive policies for PV is to facilitate an initial small-scale deployment to begin to grow the industry, even where the cost of PV is significantly above grid parity, to allow the industry to achieve the economies of scale necessary to reach grid parity. The policies are implemented to promote national energy independence, high tech job creation and reduction of CO2 emissions. Three incentive mechanisms are often used in combination as investment subsidies: the authorities refund part of the cost of installation of the system, the electricity utility buys PV electricity from the producer under a multiyear contract at a guaranteed rate, and (SRECs)

Rebates

With investment subsidies, the financial burden falls upon the taxpayer, while with feed-in tariffs the extra cost is distributed across the utilities' customer bases. While the investment subsidy may be simpler to administer, the main argument in favour of feed-in tariffs is the encouragement of quality. Investment subsidies are paid out as a function of the nameplate capacity of the installed system and are independent of its actual power yield over time, thus rewarding the overstatement of power and tolerating poor durability and maintenance. Some electric companies offer rebates to their customers, such as in , which offers .50/watt installed up to ,000.

Net metering

In the price of the electricity produced is the same as the price supplied to the consumer, and the consumer is billed on the difference between production and consumption. Net metering can usually be done with no changes to standard , which accurately measure power in both directions and automatically report the difference, and because it allows homeowners and businesses to generate electricity at a different time from consumption, effectively using the grid as a giant storage battery. With net metering, deficits are billed each month while surpluses are rolled over to the following month. Best practices call for perpetual roll over of kWh credits. Excess credits upon termination of service are either lost, or paid for at a rate ranging from wholesale to retail rate or above, as can be excess annual credits. In New Jersey, annual excess credits are paid at the wholesale rate, as are left over credits when a customer terminates service.

Feed-in tariffs (FIT)

Ambox current red.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (August 2018)

With , the financial burden falls upon the consumer. They reward the number of kilowatt-hours produced over a long period of time, but because the rate is set by the authorities, it may result in perceived overpayment. The price paid per kilowatt-hour under a feed-in tariff exceeds the price of grid electricity. Net metering refers to the case where the price paid by the utility is the same as the price charged.

The complexity of approvals in California, Spain and Italy has prevented comparable growth to Germany even though the return on investment is better.[] In some countries, additional incentives are offered for compared to stand alone PV.

  • France + EUR 0.16 /kWh (compared to semi-integrated) or + EUR 0.27/kWh (compared to stand alone)
  • Italy + EUR 0.04–0.09 kWh
  • Germany + EUR 0.05/kWh (facades only)

Solar Renewable Energy Credits (SRECs)

Alternatively, allow for a market mechanism to set the price of the solar generated electricity subsity. In this mechanism, a renewable energy production or consumption target is set, and the utility (more technically the Load Serving Entity) is obliged to purchase renewable energy or face a fine (Alternative Compliance Payment or ACP). The producer is credited for an SREC for every 1,000 kWh of electricity produced. If the utility buys this SREC and retires it, they avoid paying the ACP. In principle this system delivers the cheapest renewable energy, since the all solar facilities are eligible and can be installed in the most economic locations. Uncertainties about the future value of SRECs have led to long-term SREC contract markets to give clarity to their prices and allow solar developers to pre-sell and hedge their credits.

Financial incentives for photovoltaics differ across countries, including , ,,,, and the and even across states within the US.

The Japanese government through its ran a successful programme of subsidies from 1994 to 2003. By the end of 2004, Japan led the world in installed PV capacity with over 1.1 .

In 2004, the German government introduced the first large-scale feed-in tariff system, under the , which resulted in explosive growth of PV installations in Germany. At the outset the FIT was over 3x the retail price or 8x the industrial price. The principle behind the German system is a 20-year flat rate contract. The value of new contracts is programmed to decrease each year, in order to encourage the industry to pass on lower costs to the end users. The programme has been more successful than expected with over 1GW installed in 2006, and political pressure is mounting to decrease the tariff to lessen the future burden on consumers.

Subsequently, , , —that enjoyed an early success with domestic solar-thermal installations for hot water needs—and introduced feed-in tariffs. None have replicated the programmed decrease of FIT in new contracts though, making the German incentive relatively less and less attractive compared to other countries. The French and Greek FIT offer a high premium (EUR 0.55/kWh) for building integrated systems. California, Greece, France and Italy have 30–50% more insolation than Germany making them financially more attractive. The Greek domestic "solar roof" programme (adopted in June 2009 for installations up to 10 kW) has internal rates of return of 10–15% at current commercial installation costs, which, furthermore, is tax free.

In 2006 approved the '', offering a choice of investment subsidies or FIT for small and medium systems and a FIT for large systems. The small-system FIT of .39 per kWh (far less than EU countries) expires in just 5 years, and the alternate "EPBB" residential investment incentive is modest, averaging perhaps 20% of cost. All California incentives are scheduled to decrease in the future depending as a function of the amount of PV capacity installed.

At the end of 2006, the Ontario Power Authority (OPA, Canada) began its Standard Offer Program, a precursor to the , and the first in North America for distributed renewable projects of less than 10 MW. The feed-in tariff guaranteed a fixed price of .42 CDN per kWh over a period of twenty years. Unlike net metering, all the electricity produced was sold to the OPA at the given rate.

Grid integration

Main articles: and

Construction of the Salt Tanks which provide efficient so that output can be provided after the sun goes down, and output can be scheduled to meet demand requirements. The 280 MW is designed to provide six hours of energy storage. This allows the plant to generate about 38 percent of its rated capacity over the course of a year.

The overwhelming majority of electricity produced worldwide is used immediately, since storage is usually more expensive and because traditional generators can adapt to demand. However both solar power and are , meaning that all available output must be taken whenever it is available by moving through lines to where it can be used now. Since solar energy is not available at night, is potentially an important issue particularly in off-grid and for future scenarios to have continuous electricity availability.

Solar electricity is inherently variable and predictable by time of day, location, and seasons. In addition solar is intermittent due to day/night cycles and unpredictable weather. How much of a special challenge solar power is in any given electric utility varies significantly. In a utility, solar is well matched to daytime cooling demands. In utilities, solar displaces other forms of generation, reducing their .

In an electricity system without , generation from stored fuels (coal, biomass, natural gas, nuclear) must be go up and down in reaction to the rise and fall of solar electricity (see ). While hydroelectric and natural gas plants can quickly follow solar being intermittent due to the weather, coal, biomass and nuclear plants usually take considerable time to respond to load and can only be scheduled to follow the predictable variation. Depending on local circumstances, beyond about 20–40% of total generation, grid-connected like solar tend to require investment in some combination of , or . Integrating large amounts of solar power with existing generation equipment has caused issues in some cases. For example, in Germany, California and Hawaii, electricity prices have been known to go negative when solar is generating a lot of power, displacing existing generation contracts.

Conventional hydroelectricity works very well in conjunction with solar power, water can be held back or released from a reservoir behind a dam as required. Where a suitable river is not available, uses solar power to pump water to a high reservoir on sunny days then the energy is recovered at night and in bad weather by releasing water via a hydroelectric plant to a low reservoir where the cycle can begin again. However, this cycle can lose 20% of the energy to round trip inefficiencies, this plus the construction costs add to the expense of implementing high levels of solar power.

plants may use to store solar energy, such as in high-temperature molten salts. These salts are an effective storage medium because they are low-cost, have a high specific heat capacity, and can deliver heat at temperatures compatible with conventional power systems. This method of energy storage is used, for example, by the power station, allowing it to store 1.44  in its 68 m³ storage tank, enough to provide full output for close to 39 hours, with an efficiency of about 99%.

In are traditionally used to store excess electricity. With , excess electricity can be sent to the . and programs give these systems a credit for the electricity they produce. This credit offsets electricity provided from the grid when the system cannot meet demand, effectively trading with the grid instead of storing excess electricity. Credits are normally rolled over from month to month and any remaining surplus settled annually. When wind and solar are a small fraction of the grid power, other generation techniques can adjust their output appropriately, but as these forms of variable power grow, additional balance on the grid is needed. As prices are rapidly declining, PV systems increasingly use rechargeable batteries to store a surplus to be later used at night. stabilize the by usually for several minutes, and in rare cases for hours. In the future, less expensive batteries could play an important role on the electrical grid, as they can charge during periods when generation exceeds demand and feed their stored energy into the grid when demand is higher than generation.

Although not permitted under the US National Electric Code, it is technically possible to have a “” PV microinverter. A recent review article found that careful system design would enable such systems to meet all technical, though not all safety requirements. There are several companies selling plug and play solar systems available on the web, but there is a concern that if people install their own it will reduce the enormous employment advantage solar has over .

Common battery technologies used in today's home PV systems include, the – a modified version of the conventional , and batteries. Lead-acid batteries are currently the predominant technology used in small-scale, residential PV systems, due to their high reliability, low self discharge and investment and maintenance costs, despite shorter lifetime and lower energy density. However, lithium-ion batteries have the potential to replace lead-acid batteries in the near future, as they are being intensively developed and lower prices are expected due to provided by large production facilities such as the . In addition, the Li-ion batteries of plug-in may serve as a future storage devices in a system. Since most vehicles are parked an average of 95 percent of the time, their batteries could be used to let electricity flow from the car to the power lines and back. Other rechargeable batteries used for PV systems include, and batteries, two prominent types of a and a battery, respectively.

The combination of wind and solar PV has the advantage that the two sources complement each other because the peak operating times for each system occur at different times of the day and year. The power generation of such is therefore more constant and fluctuates less than each of the two component subsystems.Solar power is seasonal, particularly in northern/southern climates, away from the equator, suggesting a need for long term seasonal storage in a medium such as hydrogen or pumped hydroelectric. The Institute for Solar Energy Supply Technology of the pilot-tested a linking solar, wind, and to provide load-following power from renewable sources.

Research is also undertaken in this field of . It involves the use of to store solar electromagnetic energy in chemical bonds, by splitting water to produce or then combining with carbon dioxide to make biopolymers such as . Many large national and regional research projects on artificial photosynthesis are now trying to develop techniques integrating improved light capture, quantum coherence methods of electron transfer and cheap catalytic materials that operate under a variety of atmospheric conditions. Senior researchers in the field have made the public policy case for a Global Project on Artificial Photosynthesis to address critical energy security and environmental sustainability issues.

Environmental impacts

Part of the , a solar power plant located on former open-pit mining areas close to the city of , in Eastern Germany. The 78 MW Phase 1 of the plant was completed within three months.

Unlike based technologies, solar power does not lead to any harmful emissions during operation, but the production of the panels leads to some amount of pollution.

Greenhouse gases

The are in the range of 22 to 46 gram (g) per (kWh) depending on if solar thermal or solar PV is being analyzed, respectively. With this potentially being decreased to 15 g/kWh in the future. For comparison (of weighted averages), a gas-fired power plant emits some 400–599 g/kWh, an oil-fired power plant 893 g/kWh, a coal-fired power plant 915–994 g/kWh or with some 200 g/kWh, and a high-temp. power plant 91–122 g/kWh. The life cycle emission intensity of , and are lower than solar's as of 2011 as published by the IPCC, and discussed in the article . Similar to all energy sources were their total life cycle emissions primarily lay in the construction and transportation phase, the switch to in the manufacturing and transportation of solar devices would further reduce carbon emissions. BP Solar owns two factories built by Solarex (one in Maryland, the other in Virginia) in which all of the energy used to manufacture solar panels is produced by solar panels. A 1-kilowatt system eliminates the burning of approximately 170 pounds of coal, 300 pounds of carbon dioxide from being released into the atmosphere, and saves up to 105 gallons of water consumption monthly.

The US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (), in harmonizing the disparate estimates of life-cycle GHG emissions for solar PV, found that the most critical parameter was the solar insolation of the site: GHG emissions factors for PV solar are inversely proportional to insolation. For a site with insolation of 1700 kWh/m2/year, typical of southern Europe, NREL researchers estimated GHG emissions of 45 gCO2e/kWh. Using the same assumptions, at Phoenix, USA, with insolation of 2400 kWh/m2/year, the GHG emissions factor would be reduced to 32 g of CO2e/kWh.

The found that the solar PV would have little impact on the country's greenhouse gas emissions. The country already generates 80 percent of its electricity from renewable resources (primarily hydroelectricity and geothermal) and national electricity usage peaks on winter evenings whereas solar generation peaks on summer afternoons, meaning a large uptake of solar PV would end up displacing other renewable generators before fossil-fueled power plants.

Energy payback

The (EPBT) of a power generating system is the time required to generate as much energy as is consumed during production and lifetime operation of the system. Due to improving production technologies the payback time has been decreasing constantly since the introduction of PV systems in the energy market. In 2000 the energy payback time of PV systems was estimated as 8 to 11 years and in 2006 this was estimated to be 1.5 to 3.5 years for PV systems and 1–1.5 years for thin film technologies (S. Europe). These figures fell to 0.75–3.5 years in 2013, with an average of about 2 years for crystalline silicon PV and CIS systems.

Another economic measure, closely related to the energy payback time, is the (EROEI) or (EROI), which is the ratio of electricity generated divided by the energy required to build and maintain the equipment. (This is not the same as the (ROI), which varies according to local energy prices, subsidies available and metering techniques.) With expected lifetimes of 30 years, the EROEI of PV systems are in the range of 10 to 30, thus generating enough energy over their lifetimes to reproduce themselves many times (6–31 reproductions) depending on what type of material, (BOS), and the geographic location of the system.

Water use

Solar power includes plants with among the lowest water consumption per unit of electricity (photovoltaic), and also power plants with among the highest water consumption (concentrating solar power with wet-cooling systems).

Photovoltaic power plants use very little water for operations. Life-cycle water consumption for utility-scale operations is estimated to be 12 gallons per megawatt-hour for flat-panel PV solar. Only wind power, which consumes essentially no water during operations, has a lower water consumption intensity.

Concentrating solar power plants with wet-cooling systems, on the other hand, have the highest water-consumption intensities of any conventional type of electric power plant; only fossil-fuel plants with carbon-capture and storage may have higher water intensities. A 2013 study comparing various sources of electricity found that the median water consumption during operations of concentrating solar power plants with wet cooling was 810 ga/MWhr for power tower plants and 890 gal/MWhr for trough plants. This was higher than the operational water consumption (with cooling towers) for nuclear (720 gal/MWhr), coal (530 gal/MWhr), or natural gas (210). A 2011 study by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory came to similar conclusions: for power plants with cooling towers, water consumption during operations was 865 gal/MWhr for CSP trough, 786 gal/MWhr for CSP tower, 687 gal/MWhr for coal, 672 gal/MWhr for nuclear, and 198 gal/MWhr for natural gas. The Solar Energy Industries Association noted that the Nevada Solar One trough CSP plant consumes 850 gal/MWhr. The issue of water consumption is heightened because CSP plants are often located in arid environments where water is scarce.

In 2007, the US Congress directed the Department of Energy to report on ways to reduce water consumption by CSP. The subsequent report noted that dry cooling technology was available that, although more expensive to build and operate, could reduce water consumption by CSP by 91 to 95 percent. A hybrid wet/dry cooling system could reduce water consumption by 32 to 58 percent. A 2015 report by NREL noted that of the 24 operating CSP power plants in the US, 4 used dry cooling systems. The four dry-cooled systems were the three power plants at the near , and the in . Of 15 CSP projects under construction or development in the US as of March 2015, 6 were wet systems, 7 were dry systems, 1 hybrid, and 1 unspecified.

Although many older thermoelectric power plants with once-through cooling or cooling ponds use more water than CSP, meaning that more water passes through their systems, most of the cooling water returns to the water body available for other uses, and they consume less water by evaporation. For instance, the median coal power plant in the US with once-through cooling uses 36,350 gal/MWhr, but only 250 gal/MWhr (less than one percent) is lost through evaporation. Since the 1970s, the majority of US power plants have used recirculating systems such as cooling towers rather than once-through systems.

Other issues

One issue that has often raised concerns is the use of (Cd), a that has the tendency to in ecological . It is used as semiconductor component in and as buffer layer for certain in the form of . The amount of cadmium used in is relatively small (5–10 g/m²) and with proper recycling and emission control techniques in place the cadmium emissions from module production can be almost zero. Current PV technologies lead to cadmium emissions of 0.3–0.9 /kWh over the whole life-cycle. Most of these emissions arise through the use of coal power for the manufacturing of the modules, and coal and combustion leads to much higher emissions of cadmium. Life-cycle cadmium emissions from coal is 3.1 microgram/kWh, lignite 6.2, and 0.2 microgram/kWh.

In a it has been noted, that if electricity produced by photovoltaic panels were used to manufacture the modules instead of electricity from burning coal, cadmium emissions from coal power usage in the manufacturing process could be entirely eliminated.

In the case of modules, the material, that joins together the copper strings of the cells, contains about 36 percent of (Pb). Moreover, the paste used for screen printing front and back contacts contains traces of Pb and sometimes Cd as well. It is estimated that about 1,000 metric tonnes of Pb have been used for 100 gigawatts of c-Si solar modules. However, there is no fundamental need for lead in the solder alloy.

Some media sources have reported that concentrated solar power plants have injured or killed large numbers of birds due to intense heat from the concentrated sunrays. This adverse effect does not apply to PV solar power plants, and some of the claims may have been overstated or exaggerated.

A 2014-published life-cycle analysis of land use for various sources of electricity concluded that the large-scale implementation of solar and wind potentially reduces pollution-related environmental impacts. The study found that the land-use footprint, given in square meter-years per megawatt-hour (m2a/MWh), was lowest for wind, natural gas and rooftop PV, with 0.26, 0.49 and 0.59, respectively, and followed by utility-scale solar PV with 7.9. For CSP, the footprint was 9 and 14, using parabolic troughs and solar towers, respectively. The largest footprint had coal-fired power plants with 18 m2a/MWh.

Emerging technologies

Concentrator photovoltaics

(CPV) systems employ sunlight concentrated onto photovoltaic surfaces for the purpose of . Contrary to conventional photovoltaic systems, it uses and to focus sunlight onto small, but highly efficient, . Solar concentrators of all varieties may be used, and these are often mounted on a in order to keep the focal point upon the cell as the sun moves across the sky. (when combined with a PV-solar cell) can also be regarded as a CPV system. Concentrated photovoltaics are useful as they can improve efficiency of PV-solar panels drastically.

In addition, most are also made of high efficient multi-junction photovoltaic cells to derive electricity from sunlight when operating in the .

Floatovoltaics

are an emerging form of PV systems that float on the surface of irrigation canals, water reservoirs, quarry lakes, and tailing ponds. Several systems exist in France, India, Japan, Korea, the United Kingdom and the United States. These systems reduce the need of valuable land area, save drinking water that would otherwise be lost through evaporation, and show a higher efficiency of solar , as the panels are kept at a cooler temperature than they would be on land. Although not floating, other dual-use facilities with solar power include .

See also

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Further reading

Media related to at Wikimedia Commons

  • , By Ramez Naam, 16 March 2011, Scientific American analysis
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