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How cancer is diagnosed

- "The type of cells and bacteria present in a particular area of the body gives us important information about the nature of disease your pet may have. We commonly use cytology and histopathology to examine relevant areas and aid in the diagnosis process." Provides good, brief explanation on what cytology and histopathology are and how they are performed to help diagnose various diseases.

- (PDF file) Maxey L. Wellman, DVM, PhD. From Oncology and Hematology, 20th Waltham/OSU Symposium, 1996, WalthamUSA.com. "Cytology refers to the microscopic evaluation of cells. Cytologic evaluation can be very useful in the clinical diagnosis of neoplasia (cancer). Samples for cytology can be collected from a wide variety of sites and many different tissues. Samples can be collected on an outpatient basis. Both sample collection and specimen preparation can be performed using inexpensive equipment that is readily available in most veterinary practices. In-house interpretations can be made the same day, and interpretations from reference laboratories frequently are available within 24 hours."

- (PDF file) Steven E. Weisbrode, VMD, PhD. From Oncology and Hematology, 20th Annual Waltham OSU Symposium, 1996.

- (PDF file) David S. Biller, DVM. From Oncology and Hematology, 20th Waltham/OSU Symposium, 1996.

- Dr. Ron Lowe, BVSc MRCVS, PetCancerVet, Knaresborough, N Yorks, UK.

- Animal Health Trust, UK.

- World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.

- Brief explanation of biopsy. OncoLink Vet, University of Pennsylvania Cancer Center.

- Continuing Education Page for veterinarians written by Brian Wilcock, D.V.M., Ph.D., HISTOVET Surgical Pathology.

- Continuing Education Page for veterinarians written by Brian Wilcock, D.V.M., Ph.D., HISTOVET Surgical Pathology.

- Biopsy Information Sheet, School of Veterinary Science University of Queensland Brisbane, Qld, 4072, Australia:

"The correct treatment and determination of prognosis for the cancer patient is highly dependent on knowing the type, severity and extent of disease. While therapeutic excisional biopsy has its indications, if it is performed without regard to tumour type or behaviour, then the optimal treatment course may be significantly compromised. It is therefore important for the clinician to be aware of the indications for, and the techniques available for yielding an accurate diagnosis.

Generally pretreatment biopsy is indicated if the tumour type or histological grade would alter the type or extent of treatment, or if the result would change the owners willingness to proceed with definitive treatment. Two instances where biopsy is contraindicated is when it wouldn't change the choice of therapy, such as solitary

 

tumour or splenic tumour, or when the biopsy procedure is as dangerous as the definitive surgery such as brain or spinal chord biopsy."

- Animcal Cancer Care. School of Veterinary Science University of Queensland Brisbane, Qld, 4072, Australia

- Explains the importance of getting a biopsy whenever a suspicious "lump" was found on pet's body, and the procedure. The Cancer Treatment Unit . 156 Cromwell Road . Whitstable . Kent CT5 1NA . England.

- C. Guillermo Couto, DVM, ACVIM College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio, USA. WSAVA 2002 Congress Proceedings.

Types of cancer

(Photos of human cancer) - Photos and descriptions of common human cancer. American Family Physician.

(Photos of cancer in domestic ferret) - Bruce H. Williams, DVM, Diplomate, American College of Veterinary Pathologists. Photos of some cutaneous tumors.

- PetPlace.com. The types of cancer covered are:




(Ear tumors are growths associated with the ear. The most common include squamous cell carcinoma, ceruminous gland adenoma or adenocarcinoma, sebaceous gland tumor and basal cell tumor.)
(Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most frequent type of eyelid tumor in the cat. Lymphosarcoma and mast cell tumors (mastocytoma) are the next most common tumors that affect the feline eyelid.)





(vaccine-associated sarcoma)









(cancer of pancreas)


(lymphosarcome/lymphoma of kidneys)
(Epithelial tumors, mesenchymal tumors, round cell tumors - lymphosarcoma, mast cell tumors, histiocytomas, plasma cell tumors and transmissable venereal tumors - melanomas)


- Another detailed list of cancer in dogs and cats. VetMedCenter Medical Resources, Oncology. Cancer described include:















(Hemangiosarcoma-Bone)
(Hepatic and Splenic Hemangiosarcoma)
(Hemangiosarcoma-Skin)
(Hepatocellular Adenoma)
(Hepatocellular Carcinoma)




(Lymphosarcoma-Dogs)
(Lymphosarcoma-Cats)
(Mammary Adenocarcinoma)
(Mammary Adenocarcinoma)
(Mast Cell Tumors)






(Pheochromocytoma)

(Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Digit)
(Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Ear)
(Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Gingivae)
(Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung)
(Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasal Planum)
(Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasal Sinus)
(Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin)
(Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Tongue)
(Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Tonsil)
(Thymoma)



(Vaccine-associated Sarcoma)

- List of most common feline cancer. Types of cancer described include: Hemangiosarcoma, osteosarcoma, melanoma, nasal sarcoma, mesothelioma, nasal lymphoma, leukemia or lymphoma, phenochromocytomsas, adenocarcinoma, lymphosarcoma, abdominal mass, fatty cell tumor (lipoma). Vetinfo by Dr. Mike Richards, D.V.M.

- Directory of cancer and tumors in cats. Max's House.








(overview)













(specific)










- Animal Tumour Registry. Read the "Introduction" section first, then the specific type of tumor.




















- Dr. Gregory Ogilvie. Proceedings, WSAVA 2002. Cancer types discussed: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, oral squamous cell carcinoma, hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma, round cell (discrete cell) tumors, mammary adenocarcinoma, vaccine associated sarcoma.

- Dr. Gregory Ogilvie, Proceedings, WSAVA 2002.

- List of scientific presentations of oncology at WSAVA 2002.

- (for humans) OncoLink, Abramson Cancer Center of University of Pennsylvania.

- A brief overview of animal cancer. American Veterinary Medical Association.

- Overview of cancer in dogs and cats at Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine.

- Discusses various tumors that occur in feline digits (legs). Tumor types include Eosinophilic Collagenolytic Granuloma, Digital Soft Tissue Sarcoma (Fibrosarcoma, Giant Cell Tumor of Soft Tissue) , Bronchial Adenocarcinoma Metastatic to Digit, and Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Written by Dr. Brian Wilcock. HISTOVET Surgival Pathology.

- Vet Surgery Central Inc. The following tumors are discussed (with some photos of the tumors; some graphic):

Anal sac tumors
Kidney tumors
Soft tissue sarcomas
Adrenal tumors in ferrets
Bone cancer
Thyroid tumors in cats
Mammary tumors
Mast cell tumors
Lung cancer
Mouth cancer (oral tumors)
Rectal and colonic tumors
Tumors of the spleen
Limb sparing surgery for bone tumors

- by Deborah Straw Conscious Choice, November 2000.

- All Care Animal Referral Center (Fountain Valley, CA).

- List of articles on oncology and radiation therapy by Veterinary Referral Center of Colorado's information library.

- LSU School of Veterinary Medicine

- LSU School of Veterinary Medicine

FAQs on animal cancer

- An educational and resource site for animal oncology. Easy-to-understand explanation about animal oncology. Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine. The questions answered include:

- What are the effects of cancer on animals?
- What is the incidence of cancer in our pets?
- What do we know about the causes of cancer in our animals?
- Can my dog's/cat's cancer be spread to me or my other pets?
- What treatments are available for animals with cancer?
- How is cancer diagnosed?
- What are the side effects of radiation therapy?
- What about chemotherapy?
- What are the side effects of chemotherapeutic treatment?
- How is chemotherapy given?
- What questions should I ask my veterinarian or veterinary oncologist before my pet begins chemotherapy?
- What is my pet's prognosis?

- Most Recently Answered Questions. OncoLink Vet, University of Pennsylvania Cancer Center.

- Previously Answered Questions. OncoLink Vet, University of Pennsylvania Cancer Center.

Oral cancer

Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) and Environmental/Lifestyle Risk Factors

Phil, who had oral SCC, was never exposed to tobacco smoke and he ate homemade diet more than half of his life. However, the following studies indicate that the environmental and lifestyle risk factors may play a role in developing oral SCC in pet cats. Something to think about...

"." Bertone ER, Snyder LA, Moore AS. J Vet Intern Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;17(4):557-62.
— "Results of this study suggest that flea control products, diet, and perhaps environmental tobacco smoke might be associated with risk of oral SCC and indicate that further investigation into these relationships is warranted."

"." Snyder LA, Bertone ER, Jakowski RM, Dooner MS, Jennings-Ritchie J, Moore AS. Vet Pathol. 2004 May;41(3):209-14.
— "These results provide additional support for a relationship between oral SCC development and exposure to household ETS and may implicate p53 as a potential site for carcinogen-related mutation in this tumor."

Photos of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

- (WARNING - graphic) Photos of a ferret with squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible (lower jaw). ( had the same cancer.)

Articles on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and other oral cancer

- J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2003 Sep-Oct;39(5):463-7. Jones PD, de Lorimier LP, Kitchell BE, Losonsky JM. Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Illinois, 1008 West Hazelwood Drive, Urbana, Illinois 61802, USA. PubMed abstract.

- Human study of gemcitabie and cisplatin on squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. PubMed abstract.

- The New England Journal of Medicine. Abstract.

- PubMed abstract.

- Clinical Trials. Penn Veterinary Medicine, Department of Clinical Studies. Randomized, prospective clinical study consisting of 40 cats with histopathologically confirmed diagnosis of oral SCC treated with mitoxantrone chemotherapy in combination with piroxicam (in progress).

- P. Bergman and D. T. Carmichael The Animal Medical Center, New York, New York, USA. (In: Recent Advances in Small Animal Dentistry, Carmichael D.T. (Ed.) International Veterinary Information Service, Ithaca NY (www.ivis.org), 2003; A0710.0203)
"Unfortunately, the vast majority of neoplasms found in the mouths of cats are malignant and carry a poor prognosis. Over 20 different types of cancer have been reported to occur in the oral cavity of felines, although only a few are observed commonly [1]. Among the more common feline oral neoplasms are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), fibrosarcoma, lymphoma, and malignant melanoma. In fact, SCC alone accounts for about 70% of all feline oral tumors. It is of extreme importance to identify the tumor type and commence treatment early in the course of disease if a favorable treatment outcome is to be achieved. In the majority of cases, however, a clinical cure is not possible. Some oral tumors in cats are obvious, while others may present more subtly. Neoplasia must be suspected in all lesions of the feline oral cavity where an obvious cause is not clear. The first step towards treatment of feline oral neoplasia is establishing a correct diagnosis based on a biopsy."

- Dr. Brian Wilcock (HISTOVET Surgical Pathology). Includes data on the recurrence, one-year survival rate, and median survival months after partial mandibulectomy or maxillectomy of various forms of oral tumors in dogs and cats. The types of cancer discussed are squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, and fibrosarcoma.

(jaw, tongue, gum) - Long Beach Animal Hospital.

- Steven Holmstrom, Proceedings of World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.

- Stephen Withrow, Proceedings of World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.

- Frank Verstraete, Proceedings of World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.

- Stephen Withrow, Proceedings of World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.

- VeterinaryPartner.com.

- Oral SCC, diaries of treatment, symptoms, links, biopsy, oncologist search, syringe feeding, daily care, pet loss support, medical needs, Q&A group. Angel Snoop's site.

- Leen Verhaert, Belgium. Proceedings of World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.

- VetCentric article. Squamous cell carcinoma, fibrosarcoma, epulis (dental tumor), and epulides.

Gastrointestinal cancer

- Stanley Marks, Proceedings of World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.

- Margie Scherk, Proceedings of World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.

- VetCentric article.

Lymphoma

- World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.

- Overview of lymphoma in dogs and cats. UC Davis Center for Companion Animal Health CCAH Update, Spring 1999. Topics includes: The Disease in Dogs, The Disease in Cats, Therapy and Remission, and What to Expect.

- VetCentric.com article on lymphosarcoma (a.k.a., lymphoma) in dogs.

- Overview of lymphoma (lymphosarcoma) in dogs and cats. Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine.

- Another overview of lymphosarcoma in cats. VetMedCenter.com.

- Pet Health Information Sheet, The Animal Medical Center. "Lymphoma, also known as malignant lymphoma, lymphosarcoma, lymphatic cancer, and LSA, is considered systemic cancer and is the most common malignant tumor other than skin cancer in dogs and cats. The incidence of lymphoma is higher in cats than in dogs, primarily because of the feline leukemia virus. Fortunately, the disease can be treated successfully by chemotherapy." Topics: Clinical Signs, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis.

- Lecture slides on lymphoma in dogs and cats. (Text version and ) Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine.

- VIN.com. "Lymphoma accounts for one third of all cancers developed by cats. It is best classified by the anatomical areas most commonly affected: Mediastinal (most common form 20 years ago), Intestinal (most common form now), Renal, Ocular (eye), Nasal."

" As with dogs, chemotherapy protocols are associated with minimal side effects. Many protocols have been described for the feline lymphoma patient.

- In one study 7 cats were treated with the COP protocol (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone). Of these 7 cats, 6 achieved remission with a median duration of remission lasted 19 weeks. The grade of intestinal lymphoma was not considered.
- In one study, 14 cats were treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and methotrexate. Median survival time was 12 weeks. The grade of the intestinal lymphoma was not considered.
- In another study, 132 cats with lymphoma were treated with COP plus doxorubicin, L-asparaginase, and methotrexate (the "CHOP-like" protocol). Of this group 125 cats had intestinal lymphoma. Out of the total 132 cats, 67% achieved remission with a 21-week disease-free interval. Another study using the same protocol on 21 cats with intestinal lymphoma, only 38% achieved remission but these cats had disease-free interval of 40 weeks.
- In another study, 25 cats with intestinal lymphoma, 25 of which had high-grade lymphoma, were treated with COP. Those who achieved complete remission had a 30-week disease-free interval. The overall median survival when all 25 cats were considered was only 7 weeks.
- Another study looked at 11 cats with high-grade intestinal lymphoma treated with COP plus doxorubicin and L-asparaginase. Only 18% achieved complete remission. Median survival was only 11 weeks.
- As for low-grade intestinal lymphoma, a study of 50 cats included 36 treated with prednisone and chlorambucil. Here, 69% achieved complete remission for a median duration of 20.5 months."

Mammary cancer

- World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001. "Approximately 85% of feline mammary neoplasms are histologically malignant. Cancer may arise from either glandular or ductal tissue and tumors are categorized as either solid (35%), tubular (50%), or papillary (15%). Fifty percent of cats may have multiple glands develop tumors simultaneously. Local extension may be significant with rapid spread to regional lymph nodes and a relatively high rate of distant metastasis if not detected and treated early." Topics discussed: Incidence, Etiology, Clinical Behavior, Diagnosis and Staging, Treatment, and Prognosis.

- Overview of mammary cancer in dogs and cats. Veterinary Referral Center of Colorado.

- Overview. PetPlace.com.

- Pet Health Information Sheet, The Animal Medical Center. "Mammary gland tumor(s) is common in both cats and dogs. The disease tends to develop in middle-aged to older animals. About 50% of all breast tumors in dogs are malignant (cancerous), while the other 50% are benign (not cancerous). In cats, most (85 to 90%) mammary tumors are cancerous. Unlike people, dogs and cats have four to five mammary glands on each side, extending along their entire underside." Topics: Clinical Signs, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis.

- For cat owners. Explains what mammary gland tumors in cats are, what causes them, signs, how they are diagnosed and treated, and what the prognosis is. VetMedCenter.com.

- Veterinarian's version of the above article. Basics - Diagnosis - Treatment - Medications - Follow-Up - Miscellaneous. 5 minute veterinary consult. VetMedCenter.com.

- Dr. Brian Wilcock, HISTOVET Surgical Pathology.

- For human breast cancer patient. Explains various items that appear in a pathology report of human breat cancer biopsy.

Skin cancer

- Long Beach Animal Hospital

- For pet owners. Definition of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. VetMedCenter.com.

- Veterinarian's version of the above article. VetMedCenter.com.

- For pet owners. Definition of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. VetMedCenter.com.

- Veterinarian's version of the above article. VetMedCenter.com.

- "Cats can develop small bumps (papules) or larger lumps (nodules) on their skin. The term 'tumor' means an abnormal growth or swelling, and is often used to designate cancer. Often the word 'lump' also brings the word 'cancer' to mind. There are, however, many other causes of lumps and bumps." A table of Condition, Description, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment of various lumps and bumps seen on the skin of cats. PetEducation.com.

- on dogs, but also applies to cats. Article by Dr. Dunn appeared in the May, 2002, issue of Dog World Magazine.

VAS (vaccine-assosiated sarcoma), injection-site sarcoma

- PetPlace.com

- American Veterinary Medical Association.

- Vaccine-Associated Feline Sarcoma Task Force page for cat owners.

- Wendy Brook, DVM, DipABVP. Vin.com.

- Vaccine-assosiated sarcomas in cats (VAS; also known as injection-site sarcomas) and treatment options. Gulf Coast Veterianary Specialists Tumor Tidbit.

- World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.

- World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress - Vancouver 2001.

- Dr. Kevin Hahn's Tumor Tidbit.

- Dr. Brian Wilcock (HISTOVET Surgical Pathology). He analyzes VAS from histological standpoint. Includes Canadian data of VAS.

Microchip injection site tumors:

.

- Vascellari M, Melchiotti E, Mutinelli F.

- Elcock LE, Stuart BP, Wahle BS, Hoss HE, Crabb K, Millard DM, Mueller RE, Hastings TF, Lake SG.

A letter from an owner of a dog who developed fibrosarcoma at the microchip injection site - (Read in or view as )

Cancer of central nervous system, brain

- M Noonan, KL Kline, K Meleo Vet Internal Med Clin,Cincinnati,OH 00000 USA Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, 1997, 19, 4, 497. "The clinical presentation, neurologic findings, and pathology of lymphoma of the central nervous system - the most common spinal cord neoplasm in cats - are revisited by reviewing the medical records of 18 cats with this important neoplastic disease."

- Richard A. LeCouteur, BVSc, PhD, Diplomate ACVIM (Neurology), DECVN University of California Davis, California, USA. WSAVA 2002 Congress Proceedings. "Primary brain tumors appear to be relatively uncommon in most domestic species, however this is not the case in dogs and cats. Although a broad spectrum of primary tumor types occurs in dogs, meningiomas and gliomas appear to occur most frequently. Most primary brain tumors are solitary, but multiple primary brain tumors have been reported. Secondary or metastatic tumors appear to be less common and may result from local extension (e.g., nasal adenocarcinoma) or metastases from primary tumors elsewhere. Skull tumors may affect the brain by local extension."

Lung cancer and cancer of respiratory system

(1979-1994). Hahn KA, McEntee MF. Department of Comparative Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37901-1071, USA. Vet Surg 1998 Jul-Aug;27(4):307-11.

. Jerram RM, Guyer CL, Braniecki A, Read WK, Hobson HP. Department of Small Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station 77843-4474, USA.

(1992-1998). Gottfried SD, Popovitch CA, Goldschmidt MH, Schelling C. Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Center, Langhorne, Pennsylvania 19047, USA.

. Moulton JE, von Tscharner C, Schneider R. Vet Pathol 1981 Jul;18(4):513-28.

. Anderson TE, Legendre AM, McEntee MM. Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37901-1071, USA. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2000 Jan-Feb;36(1):52-5.

Multiple Myeloma, Plasma Cell Myeloma, Plasmacytoma

Muliple Myeloma

Two of four defining features must be present for diagnosis-- (caused by increased production of immunoglobulins), bone marrow invasion by plasma cells, , and lytic (destroyed) bone lesions (). The tumor cells are primarily immature plasma cells, which usually secrete immunoglobulin. This results in (increase in globulin level).

was found to have monoclonal gammopathy by serum protein electrophoresis test. The internal medicine specialist recommends next before doing bone marrow biopsy. (Read the rest at .)

- VetMedCenter article. 5 minute veterinary consult.

- VetMedCenter article. Information for owners.

- July 23, 2001 Written by: Celeste A. Clements, DVM, Diplomate ACVIM. VetCentric.

- "A 12-year-old, neutered male domestic shorthair cat is presented for evaluation of lethargy and partial inappetence for 3 days. This cat lives exclusively indoors with 7 other cats that currently are healthy. Routine vaccinations were administered within the last 6 months. On physical examination the cat is depressed and slightly dehydrated with rectal temperatureof 102.2 F, pulse of 240/min, and respiratory rate of 30 breaths/min. Breath sounds are normal, mucous membranes are pink, and capillary refill time is 2 seconds. Ophthalmic examination reveals tortuous retinal vessels in both eyes and retinal hemorrhages." Small Animal Problem Solving, Virginia Tech.

- D. Bienzle, D. C. Silverstein and K. Chaffin. Veterinary Pathology 37:364-369 (2000).
Abstract - Multiple myeloma was diagnosed in two cats with monoclonal hyperglobulinemia, proteinuria, and plasma cell proliferations in bone marrow. An immunoglobulin G-producing myeloma occurred in the vertebral bone marrow of one cat, and twice responded to surgical reduction followed by a combination of local irradiation and chemotherapy. The cat's survival time was approximately 2 years. The other myeloma in a cat that presented with hypercalcemia and renal insufficieny involved visceral organs and produced a biclonal peak due to immunoglobulin A dimer formation on serum electrophoresis. This cat's tumor did not respond to chemotherapy.

- (scroll down to "Myeloma") Susan M. Cotter DVM, DACVM (Oncology and Internal Medicine) Tufts University, School of Veterinary Medicine North Grafton, MA.

- (Last Updated: 1-Jan-1985) K. A. Jeglum. In: Textbook of Small Animal Orthopaedics, Newton C.D. and Nunamaker D.M. (Eds.) Ithaca: International Veterinary Information Service, 1985; B0080.0685.

- (Last Updated: 1-Jan-1985) M. H. Goldschmidt and D. E. Thrall. In: Textbook of Small Animal Orthopaedics, Newton C.D. and Nunamaker D.M. (Eds.) Ithaca: International Veterinary Information Service, 1985; B0077.0685.

- Veterinary Clinical Chemistry. Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine.

- Breuer W, Colbatzky F, Platz S, Hermanns W. Institute of Veterinary Pathology, University of Munich, F.R.G. J Comp Pathol. 1993 Oct;109(3):203-16. (PubMed)

- Merck Veterinary Manual.

- "This procedure separates the proteins in serum and body fluids (e.g. peritoneal fluid, urine) into the component immunoglobulins. Electrophoresis is indicated for determination of the underlying nature of a hyperglobulinemia or if multiple myeloma is suspected in a patient." College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University.

(Differential diagnosis) - "Monoclonal gammopathy has been described in cats with lymphosarcoma and is primarily because of the increased production of IgG from a clone of immunoglobulin producing cells. Clinical signs are primarily associated with hyperviscosity resulting in ophthalmic, neurologic, hematologic, and renal abnormalities. Clinical signs in cats with monoclonal gammopathy are nonspecific and include anorexia and lethargy. Protein electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis help establish a diagnosis after the recognition of an abnormally elevated total serum protein concentration. Differentials for a monoclonal gammopathy in a cat include multiple myeloma, amyloidosis, and benign hyperglobulinemia."

- (PowerPoint presentation) Includes chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and hemangiosarcoma. Dr. Susan Eddlestone. Oklahoma State University.

. Hawkins EC, Feldman BF, Blanchard PC. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1986 Apr 15;188(8):876-8. "Immunoglobulin A myeloma, serum hyperviscosity, and septic pleuritis were diagnosed in a cat with pleural and peritoneal effusions. Serum hyperviscosity was determined by use of a WBC pipette, and clinical manifestations included retinopathy and cardiac changes. The presence of Salmonella typhimurium in the pleural fluid may have resulted from increased susceptibility to infection. Postmortem examination revealed plasma cell infiltration of the pleura, mesenteric lymph nodes, and the serosa of the intestine, liver, and spleen. This case represents an unusual form of myeloma in the cat."

- (Human information) Vali Papadimitrakopoulou, MD, Donna M. Weber, MD; M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

- (Human information) Union Hospital. "When myeloma cells collect in only one bone and form a single mass, or tumor, it is called a plasmacytoma. In most cases, however, according to NCI, the myeloma cells collect in many bones, forming many tumors and causing other problems. When this happens, the disease is called multiple myeloma."

- (Human information) RA Kyle, and PR Greipp. New England Journal of Medicine.

- (Human information) Regis Bataille, M.D., Ph.D., and Jean-Luc Harousseau, M.D. New England Journal of Medicine.

- (Human information) Cancer Research UK.

Lung cancer

Diagnosing Primary Lung Tumors in Cats - Veterinary Referral Center of Colorado. Includes some radiographs (X-rays) of lung tumors. Clinical signs, appearances on radiographs, diagnosis, surgical removal of mass, chemotherapy, and possible metastasis to digits.

- Merck Veterinary Manual.

- Vet Surgery Central. Written by Dr. Daniel A. Degner, Board-certified Veterinary Surgeon (DACVS).

- PetPlace.

- PetPlace.

- PetPlace Veterinarians.

- DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY, Dr. Patricia Rose. Collections of throacic radiographs (X-rays).

Other cancer

- Ann Strieby; Paula Krimer, DVM, DVSc; and Kenneth Latimer DVM, PhD. University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathology.

- Gulf Coast Veterinary Specialists.

Terminology

- Medicine Online

- Washington State University Veterinary Medicine.

- University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Veterinary Medicine Library.

- CancerWeb. Human cancer terminology.

- Bernese Mountain Dog Club of America.

- Human information. enotes.com.





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