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Auschwitz concentration camp photo gallery


"Buchenwald" redirects here. For other uses, see .

:

at the memorial site Buchenwald, in 1983

Buchenwald concentration camp (: Konzentrationslager (KZ) Buchenwald, IPA: ; literally, in : ) was a German established on Ettersberg hill near , , in July 1937, one of the first and the largest of the concentration camps on German soil, following 's opening just over four years earlier.

Prisoners from all over Europe and the Soviet Union—, and other , the mentally ill and physically-disabled from birth defects, religious and political prisoners, and , , (then called Bible Students), criminals, , and prisoners of war—worked primarily as forced labor in local armaments factories. From 1945 to 1950, the camp was used by the Soviet occupation authorities as an internment camp, known as number 2.

Today the remains of Buchenwald serve as a memorial and permanent exhibition and museum.

Contents

History[]

The constructed Buchenwald concentration camp in 1937. The camp was liberated by the U.S. Army on 11 April 1945. , the supreme commander of the , later wrote, "Nothing has ever shocked me as much as that sight." Between 1945 and 1950, it was used by the as an for Nazi prisoners. On January 6, 1950, the handed over the Buchenwald camp to the .

The camp was to be named KZ Ettersberg, but this was changed to Buchenwald, after the beech forest which surrounds it, since "Ettersberg" carried associations with the enlightenment writer (1749–1832), an iconic figure in German culture. He lived in nearby Weimar and took walks through the woods in the area. According to modern folklore, he wrote some of his works under the so-called , the only tree on the site to survive the construction of the camp. However, the Buchenwald and Mittelbau-Dora Memorials Foundation say that the name 'Goethe Oak' was simply an epithet made up by the inmates of the camp in commemoration of Goethe. The tree was destroyed by allied bombing in 1944.

Written in the camp's main entrance gate is the motto (English:To each his own). The SS interpreted this to mean the 'superior race' had a right to humiliate and destroy others. It is embedded in the metal gate so that it can be read properly from inside the camp, rather than when standing outside.

Between April 1938 and April 1945, some 238,380 people of various nationalities including 350 prisoners of war ()s were incarcerated in Buchenwald. Wachsmann and the Buchenwald and Mittelbau-Dora Memorials Foundation place the number of deaths at 56,000, not including all those prisoners who died in another Camp after having overcome the death march from Buchenwald.

During an American bombing raid on August 24, 1944, that was directed at a nearby armaments factory, several bombs, including incendiaries, also fell on the camp, resulting in heavy casualties among prisoners (2,000 prisoners wounded and 388 killed by the raid).

Today the remains of the camp serve as a memorial and permanent exhibition and museum administered by the Buchenwald and Mittelbau-Dora Memorials Foundation, which also oversees the camp's memorial at .

Command structure[]

Commandants[]

Buchenwald’s first commandant was , who ran the camp from 1937 to July 1941. His second wife, , became notorious as Die Hexe von Buchenwald ("the witch of Buchenwald") for her cruelty and brutality. In February 1940 Koch, to his and his wife's delight, had an indoor riding hall built by the prisoners who died by the dozen due to the harsh conditions of the construction site. The hall was built inside the camp, near the canteen, so that oftentimes Ilse Koch could be seen riding in the morning to the beat of the prisoner orchestra. Koch himself was eventually imprisoned at Buchenwald by the Nazi authorities for incitement to murder. The charges were lodged by Prince Waldeck and Dr. Morgen, to which were later added charges of , , dealings, and exploitation of the camp workers for personal gain. Other camp officials were charged, including Ilse Koch. The trial resulted in Karl Koch being sentenced to death for disgracing both himself and the SS; he was executed by firing squad on April 5, 1945, one week before American troops arrived. was sentenced to a term of four years' imprisonment after the war. Her sentence was reduced to two years and she was set free. She was subsequently arrested again and sentenced to life imprisonment by the post-war German authorities; she committed suicide in (Bavaria) prison in September 1967. The second commandant of the camp was (1942–1945). He was tried in 1947 () and sentenced to death, but 28 September 1948 he died in of a heart attack before the sentence could be carried out.

Buchenwald camp money

Female prisoners and overseers[]

The number of women held in Buchenwald was somewhere between 500 and 1,000. The first female inmates were twenty political prisoners who were accompanied by a ; these women were brought to Buchenwald from in 1941 and forced into sexual slavery at the camp's . The SS later fired the SS woman on duty in the brothel for corruption; her position was taken over by “brothel mothers” as ordered by SS chief .

The majority of women prisoners, however, arrived in 1944 and 1945 from other camps, mainly , , and . Only one barracks was set aside for them; this was overseen by the female block leader (Blockführerin) Franziska Hoengesberg, who came from Essen when it was evacuated. All the women prisoners were later shipped out to one of Buchenwald's many female satellite camps in , , , , , , , , , and , to name a few. No female guards were permanently stationed at Buchenwald.

When the Buchenwald camp was evacuated, the SS sent the male prisoners to other camps, and the five hundred remaining women (including one of the secret annex members who lived with , "Mrs. van Daan", real name ), were taken by train and on foot to the in the . Many, including van Pels, died sometime between April and May 1945. Because the female prisoner population at Buchenwald was comparatively small, the SS only trained female overseers at the camp and "assigned" them to one of the female sub-camps. Twenty-two known female guards had personnel files at the camp, but it is unlikely that any of them stayed at Buchenwald for longer than a few days.

Ilse Koch served as head supervisor (Oberaufseherin) of 22 other female guards and hundreds of women prisoners in the main camp. More than 530 women served as guards in the vast Buchenwald system of subcamps and external commands across Germany. Only 22 women served/trained in Buchenwald, compared to over 15,500 men. Anna Fest was a guard at Ravensbrück, who was later tried and acquitted. was a guard at Ravensbrück, who was convicted of her crimes.

Allied POWs[]

Main article:

Although it was highly unusual for German authorities to send POWs to concentration camps, Buchenwald held a group of for two months. These men were from the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Jamaica. They all arrived at Buchenwald on August 20, 1944.

All these airmen were in aircraft that had crashed in . Two explanations are given for them being sent to a concentration camp: first, that they had managed to make contact with the , some were disguised as civilians, and they were carrying false papers when caught; they were therefore categorized by the Germans as , which meant their rights under the were not respected. The second explanation is that they had been categorised as ("terror aviators"). The aviators were initially held in Gestapo prisons and headquarters in France. In April or August 1944, they and other Gestapo prisoners were packed into (US: boxcars) and sent to Buchenwald. The journey took five days, during which they received very little food or water. One aviator recalled their arrival at Buchenwald:

As we got close to the camp and saw what was inside... a terrible, terrible fear and horror entered our hearts. We thought, what is this? Where are we going? Why are we here? And as you got closer to the camp and started to enter [it] and saw these human skeletons walking around—old men, young men, boys, just skin and bone, we thought, what are we getting into?

— Canadian airman Ed Carter-Edward's recollection of his arrival at Buchenwald.

They were subjected to the same treatment and abuse as other Buchenwald prisoners until October 1944, when a change in policy saw the aviators dispatched to , a regular POW camp; nevertheless, two airmen died at Buchenwald. After the war some of the airmen recounted that their rescue was effected by Luftwaffe officers who visited Buchenwald and, on their return to Berlin, demanded the airmen's release. So far these recollections have not been verified with archival records. The Gedenkstätte Buchenwald states that a visit by Luftwaffe officers might have happened and that this might have influenced the decision-making process what to do with the airmen. On the other hand, there might have been no connection whatsoever, because the decisions were not made by Luftwaffe officers.

Buchenwald was also the main imprisonment for a number of Norwegian university students from 1943 until the end of the war. The students, being Norwegian, got better treatment than most, but had to resist Nazi schooling for months. They became remembered for resisting forced labor in a minefield, as the Nazis wished to use them as . An incident connected to this is remembered as the 'Strike at Burkheim'. The Norwegian students in Buchenwald lived in a warmer, stone-construction house and had their own clothes.

Death toll[]

Causes of death[]

A primary cause of death was illness due to harsh camp conditions, with starvation—and its consequent illnesses—prevalent. Malnourished and suffering from disease, many were literally "worked to death" under the Vernichtung durch Arbeit policy (), as inmates only had the choice between slave labor or inevitable execution. Many inmates died as a result of or fell victim to arbitrary acts perpetrated by the SS guards. Other prisoners were simply murdered, primarily by shooting and hanging.

was an SS-Hauptscharführer who served as a guard at the concentration camps of Dachau and Buchenwald. Known as the "Hangman of Buchenwald", he was considered a depraved sadist who reportedly ordered Otto Neururer and Mathias Spannlang, two Austrian priests, to be . Sommer was especially infamous for hanging prisoners off of trees from their wrists, which had been tied behind their backs (a torture technique known as ) in the "singing forest", so named because of the screams which emanated from this wooded area.

of Soviet POWs were also carried out at Buchenwald. At least 1,000 men were selected in 1941–42 by a task force of three officers and sent to the camp for immediate liquidation by a gunshot to the back of the neck, the infamous Genickschuss.

The camp was also a site of large-scale trials for against in 1942 and 1943. In all 729 inmates were used as test subjects, of whom 154 died. Other "experimentation" occurred at Buchenwald on a smaller scale. One such experiment aimed at determining the precise fatal dose of a poison of the group; according to the testimony of one doctor, four Soviet POWs were administered the poison, and when it proved not to be fatal they were "strangled in the crematorium" and subsequently "dissected". Among various other experiments was one which, in order to test the effectiveness of a balm for wounds from , involved inflicting "very severe" burns on inmates. When challenged at trial over the nature of this testing, and particularly over the fact that the testing was designed in some cases to cause death and only to measure the time which elapsed until death was caused, one Nazi doctor's defence was that, although a doctor, he was a "legally appointed executioner".

Number of deaths[]

Main article:

The SS left behind accounts of the number of prisoners and people coming to and leaving the camp, categorizing those leaving them by release, transfer, or death. These accounts are one of the sources of estimates for the number of deaths in Buchenwald. According to SS documents, 33,462 died. These documents were not, however, necessarily accurate: Among those executed before 1944, many were listed as "transferred to the Gestapo". Furthermore, from 1941, Soviet POWs were executed in mass killings. Arriving prisoners selected for execution were not entered into the camp register and therefore were not among the 33,462 dead listed.

One former Buchenwald prisoner, Armin Walter, calculated the number of executions by the number of shootings in the back of the head. His job at Buchenwald was to set up and care for a radio installation at the facility where people were executed; he counted the numbers, which arrived by telex, and hid the information. He says that 8,483 Soviet prisoners of war were shot in this manner.

According to the same source, the total is estimated at 56,545. This number is the sum of:

  • Deaths according to material left behind by the SS: 33,462
  • Executions by shooting: 8,483
  • Executions by hanging (estimate): 1,100
  • Deaths during evacuation transports (estimate): 13,500

This total (56,545) corresponds to a death rate of 24 percent, assuming that the number of persons passing through the camp according to documents left by the SS, 240,000 prisoners, is accurate.

Liberation from the Germans[]

On April 4, 1945, the overran , a subcamp of Buchenwald. It was the first[] German camp liberated by the U.S.

Buchenwald was partially evacuated by the Germans from April 6, 1945, until April 11, 1945. In the days before the arrival of the American army, thousands of the prisoners were forced to join the evacuation marches. Thanks in large part to the efforts of Polish engineer (and , his pre-war callsign was SP2BD) Gwidon Damazyn, an inmate since March 1941, a secret short-wave transmitter and small generator were built and hidden in the prisoners' movie room. On April 8 at noon, Damazyn and Russian prisoner Konstantin Ivanovich Leonov sent the message prepared by leaders of the prisoners' underground resistance (supposedly and  ()):

To the Allies. To the army of General Patton. This is the Buchenwald concentration camp. SOS. We request help. They want to evacuate us. The SS wants to destroy us.

The text was repeated several times in English, German, and Russian. Damazyn sent the English and German transmissions, while Leonov sent the Russian version. Three minutes after the last transmission sent by Damazyn, the headquarters of the responded:

KZ Bu. Hold out. Rushing to your aid. Staff of Third Army.

The bodies of prisoners in the liberated Buchenwald, 16 April 1945

According to Teofil Witek, a fellow Polish prisoner who witnessed the transmissions, Damazyn fainted after receiving the message.

After this news had been received, inmates stormed the watchtowers and killed the remaining guards, using arms they had been collecting since 1942 (one machine gun and 91 rifles; see ).

A detachment of troops of the U.S. 9th Armored Infantry Battalion, from the , part of the , and under the command of Frederic Keffer, arrived at Buchenwald on April 11, 1945 at 3:15 p.m. (now the permanent time of the clock at the entrance gate). The soldiers were given a hero's welcome, with the emaciated survivors finding the strength to toss some liberators into the air in celebration.

Later in the day, elements of the overran Langenstein, one of a number of smaller camps comprising the Buchenwald complex. There, the division liberated over 21,000 prisoners, ordered the mayor of Langenstein to send food and water to the camp, and hurried medical supplies forward from the 20th Field Hospital.

Third Army Headquarters sent elements of the to take control of the camp on the morning of Thursday, April 12, 1945. Several journalists arrived on the same day, perhaps with the 80th, including , whose radio report of his arrival and reception was broadcast on and became one of his most famous:

I asked to see one of the barracks. It happened to be occupied by Czechoslovaks. When I entered, men crowded around, tried to lift me to their shoulders. They were too weak. Many of them could not get out of bed. I was told that this building had once stabled 80 horses. There were 1,200 men in it, five to a bunk. The stink was beyond all description.

They called the doctor. We inspected his records. There were only names in the little black book, nothing more. Nothing about who these men were, what they had done, or hoped. Behind the names of those who had died, there was a cross. I counted them. They totaled 242. 242 out of 1,200, in one month.

As we walked out into the courtyard, a man fell dead. Two others, they must have been over 60, were crawling toward the latrine. I saw it, but will not describe it.

— Extract from 's Buchenwald Report – April 15, 1945.

Civilian tour[]

In mid-April, 1945, Weimar's civilians were required to complete a tour of the camp—to "see for themselves the horror, brutality and human indecency" perpetrated. Many were in tears; others fainted and could be taken no further. Liberated inmates were dying at a rate of forty every day.

Soviet Special Camp 2[]

Further information:

After liberation, between 1945 and February 10, 1950, the camp was administered by the and served as Special Camp No. 2 of the . It was part of a operating since 1945, formally integrated into the in 1948. Another infamous "special camp" in was the former .

Between August 1945 and the dissolution on March 1, 1950, 28,455 prisoners, including 1,000 women, were held by the Soviet Union at Buchenwald. A total of 7,113 people died in Special Camp Number 2, according to the Soviet records. They were buried in mass graves in the woods surrounding the camp. Their relatives did not receive any notification of their deaths. Prisoners comprised alleged opponents of , and alleged members of the or Nazi organizations; others were imprisoned due to identity confusion and arbitrary arrests. The NKVD would not allow any contact of prisoners with the outside world and did not attempt to determine the guilt of any individual prisoner.

On January 6, 1950, Soviet Minister of Internal Affairs ordered all special camps, including Buchenwald, to be handed over to the East German Ministry of Internal Affairs.

Demolition[]

In October 1950, it was decreed that the camp would be demolished. The main gate, the crematorium, the hospital block, and two guard towers were spared. All prisoner barracks and other buildings were razed. Foundations of some still exist and many others have been rebuilt. According to the Buchenwald Memorial website, "the combination of obliteration and preservation was dictated by a specific concept for interpreting the history of Buchenwald Concentration Camp."

The first monument to victims was erected days after the initial liberation. Intended to be completely temporary, it was built by prisoners and made of wood. A second monument to commemorate the dead was erected in 1958 by the GDR near the mass graves. Inside the camp, there is a stainless steel monument in the place of the first monument, the surface of which is maintained at 37 °C (99 °F), the temperature of human skin, all year round.

Commandants[]

Physicians[]

Guards[]

German head of personnel[]

Notable inmates[]

Buchenwald inmates The bullet-ridden body of one SS guard, the other stabbed, who were killed in the Ohrdruf concentration camp soon after the liberation. Buchenwald memorial Buchenwald's crematorium
  • , American pilot
  • , Austrian-Belgian writer
  • , French writer
  • , before World War II Chief Rabbi of , afterward Chief Rabbi of Mexico
  • , psychiatrist
  • , German-Jewish World War l fighter pilot
  • , Jewish Austrian-American child psychologist
  • , Polish socialist politician
  • , Jewish French politician, pre-and post-war long-term French prime minister
  • , Protestant theologian and prominent member of the Confessing Church
  • , Croatian University professor
  • , the last known surviving homosexual deported to the camps; died in 2011
  • , former member of the SPD and leader of its faction in the Weimar Reichstag, died in the camp in 1944
  • , British officer and (SOE) operative
  • , French actor, Corporal Louis LeBeau in the Hogan's Heroes television series
  • , French general
  • , Polish politician
  • , French politician, former head of the French government
  • , French aviation entrepreneur who founded the Dassault Group
  • , member of the French resistance, later involved in the attempted
  • , French artist and museum curator
  • , French resistant,
  • , Dutch politician and prime minister, held as hostage in Buchenwald from 1940 to 1941
  • , German architect, designer of the Buchenwald entrance gates
  • , Polish Jewish concert pianist and virtuoso.
  • , Polish serologist and philosopher of science.
  • , Romanian film actress, died in the camp in 1943
  • , French resistance member, second in command of CARTE, then head of DONKEYMAN network
  • , Czech communist
  • , writer and editor
  • , German Roman Catholic priest active in resistance movement against the National Socialism
  • , Austrian Architect and Industrial Designer, transferred from Dachau in September 1938, released in January 1939, moved to the US
  • , film producer (, 1922)
  • French sociologist, died in the camp in 1945
  •  (), Dutch psychiatrist
  •  (), French engineer, president of IKBD (International Committee Buchenwald Dora and commandos)
  • inventor of the , hand-held, hand-cranked mechanical calculator
  • , German writer
  • , Belgian politician, former Prime Minister of Belgium, died in the camp in 1944
  • , French trade unionist and laureate
  • , Scout leader, head of the pre-war in Germany
  • writer, 2002 recipient
  • , anti-Nazi activist, later Christian Socialist, professor, broadcaster and author
  • , , Royal New Zealand Air Force
  • (born 1937),
  • , Austrian composer and entertainer
  • , Austrian lyricist
  • , senior Czech communist and writer, future government minister Polish prisoners from Buchenwald awaiting execution in the forest near the camp, April 26, 1942
General and other high ranking U.S. Army officers view the bodies of prisoners, April 12, 1945 Buchenwald, photo taken April 16, 1945, five days after liberation of the camp. is in the second row from the bottom, seventh from the left, next to the bunk post.
  • , blind French memoirist and professor
  • , French Sinologist, pioneering scholar of Taoism, died in the camp in March 1945
  • , 's immediate superior in an Army Intelligence Division in the Reichswehr, 1919–1920
  • , Austrian actor, died in the camp in 1938
  • , American-born gulag survivor and author; Family owner of the Camera factory, Dresden 1945
  • , Member of the French resistance
  • , an agent of the SOE who managed to escape Buchenwald with .
  • , Dutch painter and twin brother of
  • , considered the father of
  • , French corporate executive and former chairman of
  • , minister of health under Mao
  • , artist, designer, publisher of
  • , German pastor, died in the camp in 1939
  • , Spanish intellectual and politician and culture minister of Spain (1988–91)
  • , Austrian poet and dramatist, died in the camp in 1939
  • (1911- 2005), French painter.
  • , leader of the , died in the camp in April 1944
  • , escapee
  • , Austrian writer
  • , German writer
  • , Romanian Jewish French-American writer, 1986 recipient
  • , and agent, codenamed "The White Rabbit"
  • , Czech National Social Party politician, deputy Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia (1946–1948)
  • , the daughter of , died in the camp in 1944.
  • , died in Soviet custody in 1947.

Camp literature[]

Survivors who have written about their camp experiences include , who in Quel beau dimanche! describes conversations involving and Léon Blum, and , whose Der Totenwald was written in 1939 but not published until 1945, and which likewise involved Goethe. Scholars have investigated how camp inmates used art to help deal with their circumstances, and according to writers often did so by turning to Goethe. Artist sketched, besides other scenes of camp life, the Goethe Oak, under which he used to sit and write. One of the few prisoners who escaped from the camp, the Belgian Edmond Vandievoet, recounted his experiences in a book whose English title is "I escaped from a Nazi Death Camp" [Editions Jourdan, 2015]. In his work , talks about his stay in Buchenwald, including his father's death.

There is an account of the Soviet NKVD camp, by former inmate Maria Linke. Born in tsarist-era Russia, daughter of a German foundry manager, she was taken into custody due to her fluent Russian.

Modern times[]

Today the remains of Buchenwald serves as a memorial and permanent exhibition and museum administrated by Buchenwald and Mittelbau-Dora Memorials Foundation, which also administrates the camp memorial at .

Visit from President Obama and Chancellor Merkel[]

On June 5, 2009, and visited Buchenwald after a tour of and . During the visit they were accompanied by and  (), both survivors of the camp. (), the director of the Buchenwald and Mittelbau-Dora Memorials Foundation and honorary professor of , guided the four guests through the remainder of the site of the camp. During the visit , who together with Bertrand Herz were sent to the as 16-year-old boys, said, "if these trees could talk." His statement marked the irony about the beauty of the landscape and the horrors that took place within the camp. President Obama mentioned during his visit that he had heard stories as a child from his great uncle, who was part of the , the first Americans to reach the camp at Ohrdruf, one of Buchenwald's satellites. Obama was the first sitting US President to visit the Buchenwald concentration camp.

Photo gallery[]

  • Camp gate

  • Main camp area

  • Crematorium

  • Inside the crematorium

  • The "Corpse Cellar"

  • Russian graveyard

  • Cells

  • Memorial

  • Buchenwald camp memorial

  • Buchenwald camp memorial

See also[]

References[]

  1. 2008-03-19 at the ..
  2. ^ b . Buchenwald and Mittelbau-Dora Memorials Foundation. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  3. . Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  4. Farmer, Sarah (Winter 1995). "Symbols that Face Two Ways: Commemorating the Victims of Nazism and Stalinism at Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen". Representations. 49: 100–101.  .  . 
  5. Prisoner 4935 (4 November 2006). . (in German). Wojciech Simson (trans.). Retrieved 8 March 2014. 
  6. . Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  7. . Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  8. MacGregor, Neil (2016). At the Buchenwald Gate. . London: Penguin Random House. pp. 467–468.
  9. [The Dead of Buchenwald, 1937–45 (table)]. Stiftung Gedenkstätten Buchenwald und Mittelbau-Dora (in German). 
  10. Hackett 1997, p. 43 n.19
  11. Hackett 1997, p. 59 n.29
  12. Stein, Harry (2005). Gedenkstatte Buchenwald, ed. Buchenwald concentration camp 1937–1945 (A Guide to the Permanent Historical Exhibition). Wallstein.  . 
  13. ^ . Fold3 by Ancestry. 
  14. , German Women Recall the Third Reich, Alison Owings, Rutgers University Press, page 313 (Google Books)
  15. Accessed 16 May 2007.
  16. Accessed 9 July 2017.
  17. ^ . www.buchenwaldflyboy.wordpress.com
  18. From The Lucky Ones: Allied Airmen and Buchenwald (1994 film, directed by Michael Allder), cited by Accessed 16 May 2007.
  19. National Museum of the USAF, Ibid.
  20. ^ Biskup, Harald (2014-03-12). [US-Airmen in Buchenwald Cconcentration Camp: Last Fight for the Rescuer]. Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger. Cologne. Retrieved 2018-06-27. 
  21. Redlich, Carl Aage: 19. September, 1945. p. 55.
  22. The resistance in Austria, 1938–1945 By Radomír Luža Publisher: University of Minnesota Press (April 9, 1984)  
  23. Spitz, Vivien (2005). Doctors from Hell: The Horrific Account of Nazi Experiments on Humans. Sentient Publications. p. 199.  . 
  24. Spitz 2005, pp. 209–10
  25. Spitz 2005, pp. 213–4
  26. Spitz 2005, p. 209
  27. Bartel 1961, p. 203, lines 18–38.
  28. Includes male deaths in satellite camps.
  29. , p. 87, line 17–18) reports that somewhere between 12,000 and 15,000 prisoners died on evacuation transports in March and April 1945.
  30. Bartel 1960, p. 87, line 8.
  31. ^ . United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM)
  32. Langbein, Hermann; Zohn, Harry (translator) (1994). Against All Hope: Resistance in the Nazi Concentration Camps, 1938–1945. New York: Paragon House. p. 502.  . 
  33. Several eyewitness reports of Dutch and German inmates of Buchenwald at the Dutch Institute for War Documentation NIOD in Amsterdam.
  34. ^ Wayne Drash (August 14, 2008). . CNN
  35. . www.otr.com
  36. . Alpha History. Retrieved 21 October 2017. 
  37. . The Guardian. Retrieved 21 October 2017. 
  38. "WWII: Behind Closed Doors", Episode 6 of 6. BBC. Broadcast on BBC 2, on Monday 15 December 2008.
  39. Butler, Desmond (2001-12-17). . The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-27. 
  40. ^ Kai Cornelius, Vom spurlosen Verschwindenlassen zur Benachrichtigungspflicht bei Festnahmen, BWV Verlag, 2004, p. 131,  .
  41. Kinzer, Stephen (1992-09-24). . The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-27. 
  42. ^ Petra Weber, Justiz und Diktatur: Justizverwaltung und politische Strafjustiz in Thüringen 1945–1961: Veröffentlichungen zur SBZ-/DDR -Forschung im Institut für Zeitgeschichte, Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 2000, p. 99,  .
  43. Cornelius, p. 128.
  44. ^ Weber, p. 100. Of the Buchenwald inmates, none had faced a Soviet military tribunal; those were concentrated in Sachsenhausen and Bautzen.
  45. Cornelius, pp. 126, 133–134
  46. Young, James E.: At Memory's Edge: After-Images of the Holocaust in Contemporary Art and Architecture, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000, p. 105.
  47. ^ . 
  48. Klee, Ernst (2007) Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich – Wer war was vor und nach 1945., 2. Auflage. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag
  49. Ziolkowski, Theodore (2001). "Das Treffen in Buchenwald oder Der vergegenwärtigte Goethe". Modern Language Studies. 31 (1): 131–50. :.  . 
  50. Jenkins, David Fraser (2000). . New Age International. p. 84.  . 
  51. Wiesel, Elie (2007). La Nuit (2nd ed.). Paris: Éditions de Minuit. pp. 194–200. 
  52. Hunt, Ruth with Linke, Maria East Wind 1977  
  53. ^ . The White House. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 

Sources

  • : Nackt unter Wölfen ("Naked among the wolves"), a fictional account of the last days of Buchenwald before the US liberation; based on a true story. Available as a book in German or as a in German with English subtitles. Book ino: Aufbau Taschenbuchverlag, 1998,  . Translations into English and other languages exist, but are out of print.
  • Bartel, Walter, ed. (1961). Buchenwald-Mahnung und Verpflichtung: Dokumente und Berichte [Buchenwald-Warnings and obligation: Documents and reports] (in German). Kongress-Verlag.  .  .
  • von Flocken, Jan and Klonovsky, Michael: Stalins Lager in Deutschland 1945–1950. Dokumentation, Zeugenberichte, Berlin: Ullstein, 1991.  .
  • Frankl, Viktor E. (2009). (PDF) (in German). Kösel.  . Retrieved 1 May 2016. 
  • German, Elischewa (2014). (in German). Norderstedt: BoD – Books on Demand.  . Retrieved 1 May 2016. 
  • Achille Guyaux, bagnard N° 60472: "Blutberg, la montagne du sang", Bruxelles, Editions Raynard-Ransart, 1948.
  • Hackett, David A. (1997). . Westview Press.  . Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  • d'Harcourt, Pierre: The Real Enemy Longmans 2007.
  • James, Brian: "The Dream that Wouldn't Die", an account of John H. Noble’s experiences in Buchenwald under Soviet Rule and the Soviet camp system in the 1950s, in You Magazine delivered with (/), August 1992. The article includes a reference to 3,000 Westerners as Soviet prisoners in 1954.
  • Knigge, Volkhard und Ritscher, Bodo: Totenbuch. Speziallager Buchenwald 1945–1950, Weimar: Stiftung Gedenkstätten Buchenwald und Mittelbau Dora, 2003.
  • Koch, Matthew: History of a Victim – Etta Sapon Bulceci ed. Rome 2007.
  • : A Buchenwald Diary (Poems following a visit to Buchenwald Concentration camp, Weimar, Germany), Poetry Chain, 2004.
  • : The Theory and Practice of Hell: the German Concentration Camps and the System Behind Them. New York: Farrar Strauss, 1950. Republished 2006.
  • Noble, John H.: I was a Slave in Russia: An American Tells his Story.
  • .
  • .
  • Ritscher, Bodo: Das sowjetische Speziallager Nr. 2 1945–1950. Katalog zur ständigen historischen Ausstellung, Göttingen: Wallstein, 1999.
  • Sturm, Gunther: Mark Von Santill; Life & Crime of the Beast Gozon ed. Frascati 2007.
  • (2015). Kl: a history of the Nazi concentration camps (Kindle ed. by Farrar, Straus and Giroux ed.). New York City: Macmillan.  . 

External links[]

  • , Buchenwald and Mittelbau-Dora Memorials Foundation.
  • , British Pathé.
  • , jewishgen.org.
  • Hardy Graupner: , Deutsche Welle, 16 February 2010.
  • , Leo Baeck Institute, New York City 2013. Includes extensive reports on Buchenwald collected by the Allied forces shortly after liberating the camp in April 1945.
  • - The story of Lancaster ND424 'PH-G' of 12 Squadron Bomber Command and the three members of the crew who were imprisoned in Buchenwald from August to October 1944.



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